Small scale fossil generators in Europe

From Global Energy Monitor

This is the first paragraph.[1]

Emissions of interest:

  • CO2
  • CH4
  • N2O

Additional emissions of potential interest:

  • NOx
  • CO
  • PM (Particulate Matter)
  • HC5
  • NMHC6
  • C6H6

Technology

Electricity Generation

Combined heat and power units/plants (CHP)

  • typically gas fired[2]
  • Best technology use-cases, potential improvements and more can be found here[3]

reserve generators#

emergency generators:

  • typically fueled with diesel or light oil [2]


portable generators

small-scale stationary generators for flexibility#

Heat

emergency generators for district heating?

Oil-fired heating systems

Combined heat and power units/plants*

(Other generators)

Combustion enginges in Non-road/offroad sector: Industry, agriculture, building sector, ships, etc.[2]

Emission reduction technologies[2]

  • Lean burning
  • three way catalytic converter (TWC)
  • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
  • Particulate filter
  • other catalytic converters

Regulatory Frameworks

Emission allowances and Technical regulation

  • EU:
    • emission limits and type-approval for internal combustion engines for non-road mobile machinery[4]
    • emission limits of SO2, NOX and dust (monitoring of CO) for medium combustion plants (1MW<= plant <50MW)[5]
      • Member States are required to report about the emissions in 2021, 2026, and 2031[6]
      • Various exclusions apply for different industry sites, such as the chemical sector or specific processes within the pulp sector. It may, however, be the case that such installations often are included in the EU ETS[7]
    • emission limits for smaller plants covered by ecodesign directive
    • EU ETS:
      • All industry and energy generation emissions for defined installations. In case of combustion, capacity needs to amount to at least 20 MW (or 50MW depending on fuel). For other industrial emissions, the production capacity constitutes the minimum threshold[8]
      • Opt out from the trading system is permissible for entitites with requirements such as less than 35 MW capacity. Opt out necessitates equivalent mitigation measures or compensation payments
      • Emissions that opted out in 2019 "amounted to 3.81 million tonnes CO2(some 0.25% of total stationary EU ETS emissions, compared to 0.17% the year before)"[9]
  • Switzerland: Luftreinhalteverordnung (air polution control)[2]
    • emergency generators (used less than 50 h/a) have less polution restrictions
    • CHP plants, defined as producing at least 5% electricity and an energy conversion efficiency of at least 60%
  • Switzerland: regulated (i.e. CO, NOx, PM) and non-regulated emissions (i.e. CH4, C6H6, N2O)[10]


Market participation

  • flexibility market (as part of virtual power plants)
  • systemic relevance for network operators
  • other electricity markets
  • participation and/or


Non-market participation

  • reserve and emergency generators with lesser emission reduction requirements?
  • subsidies for replacement/alternatives?

Country-by-Country Assessment/Data

"There are estimated to be around 143 000 Medium combustion plants (MCPs) in the EU"[6]

"The large inconsistencies observed may be in part due to the different methodologies and as-sumptions used to allocate the diffuse industrial emissions. Emissionsfrom Medium Combustion Plants (MCP, > 1 MWth and < 50 MWth)are just now starting to be regulated by the EC (Directive, 2015/2 193)and consequently no information on these facilities (e.g. geographiclocation, emissions) is available. Considering that the number of MCP inthe EU is estimated to be around 143,000 (European Union, 2016b),having detailed information of these facilities would improve the allocation of industrial emissions and reduce the observed discrepancies."[11] MCP estimation is segmented as follows, but "very limited information could be found on [data on cobumbustion technology used], and there was significant variation for the Member States that have provided an indication of the split." (Annex 12) [12][13]:

Table: Number of plants and capacity per Member State 2010[14]
Rated Thermal Input 1-5 MW 5-20 MW 20-50 MW Total
Number of plants 113809 23868 5309 142986
Total rated thermal input (GW) 274 232 177 683
Annuel Fuel consumption (PJ/year) 1971 2325 1410 5705
- thereof biomass (PJ/year) 163 160 182 505
- thereof other solid fuel (PJ/year) 49 46 74 169
- thereof liquid fuel (PJ/year) 213 290 206 709
- thereof natural gas (PJ/year) 1268 1704 844 3816
- thereof other gaseous fuel (PJ/year) 277 125 104 506
SO2 emissions (kt/year) 103 130 68 301
NOx emissions (kt/year) 210 227 117 554
PM emissions (kt/year) 17 20 16 54
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EU ETS Installations Map

Austria

https://secure.umweltbundesamt.at/erasmfa/index.xhtml

France

various emitting and risky installations: https://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/datasets/base-des-installations-classees-icpe/

Germany

NRW (Bundesland): https://www-lanuv-fis.nrw.de/mfa-register (I suppose other Länder will also have comparable register)

Kassel (City) https://rp-kassel.hessen.de/sites/rp-kassel.hessen.de/files/44_%20BImSchV_Register_KS_03_2021.pdf

Nuremberg (City): https://www.nuernberg.de/imperia/md/umweltamt/dokumente/luft/2021_02_17_registrierung_anlagen_p36.pdf

these registers are probably available for all Länder, counties or cities

List of industrial sites not included in EU ETS: https://www.dehst.de/EN/european-emissions-trading/installation-operators/2021-2030/small-emitters/small-emitters_node.html

Note: inclusion in EU ETS is only required for sites with > 20 MW

Ireland

Medium combustion plant register: http://www.epa.ie/mcp/#/register

Luxembourg

https://mcp.aev.etat.lu/MCP/allmap

Poland

Power plant database: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1HzmIazePCDWJ1LdB6BuQeGfQHs8O_MDRek3YhEt4yTY/edit#gid=1435861910 (incl. a couple of CHPs <20MW

UK

List of industrial sites not included in EU ETS: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/cutting-emissions/eu-ets/7178-list-of-the-uk-installations-to-be-excluded-from-p.pdf

Note: inclusion in EU ETS is only required for sites with > 20 MW

Articles and resources

References

  1. "How can we reduce emissions from small fossil fuel generators?" Ember, May 31, 2018
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Notter, B., & Graf, C. (2016). Emissionsinventar stationäre Motoren und Gasturbinen Standbericht 2014. https://www.infras.ch/media/filer_public/1b/6c/1b6cbf93-b246-4c2b-a672-bf3064524bda/7279b_emissionsinventar_stationaremotorengasturbinen_2014.pdf
  3. Lopez, A., Gallauner, T., Hekman, J., & Stephenson, S. (2019). Final Technology Report: MCP Information Exchange. Retrieved from https://circabc.europa.eu/ui/group/06f33a94-9829-4eee-b187-21bb783a0fbf/library/9a99a632-9ba8-4cc0-9679-08d929afda59/details
  4. European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. (2016). Regulation (EU) 2016/1628. Official Journal of the European Union, L252(September), 53–117.: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R1628&from=DE
  5. European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. (2016). Regulation (EU) 2016/1628. Official Journal of the European Union, L252(September), 53–117. available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015L2193&rid=4
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Medium Combustion Plant (MCP) Directive - Environment - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-03-23.
  7. "Excluded and Exempted Lists Medium Combustion Plant Directive" (PDF).
  8. "EUR-Lex - 32010L0075 - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  9. European Commission (2020): Report on the functioning of the European carbon market. avaliable at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/news/docs/com_2020_740_en.pdf
  10. Notter, B., & Auftrag, I. (2016). Emissionsinventar stationäre Motoren und Gasturbinen Standbericht 2014. https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/de/dokumente/luft/uw-umwelt-wissen/energieverbrauchundschadstoffemissionendesnon-road-sektors.pdf.download.pdf/energieverbrauchundschadstoffemissionendesnon-road-sektors.pdf
  11. Trombetti, Marco; Thunis, Philippe; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Clappier, Alain; Couvidat, Florian; Guevara, Marc; Kuenen, Jeroen; López-Aparicio, Susana (2018-01). "Spatial inter-comparison of Top-down emission inventories in European urban areas". Atmospheric Environment. 173: 142–156. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.10.032. ISSN 1352-2310. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. "Annex 12 to COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and he Committee of the Regions a Clean Air Programme for Europe Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from medium combustion plants Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants and amending Directive 2003/35/EC Proposal for a Council Decision on the acceptance of the Amendment to the 1999 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone".
  13. "COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the documents Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and he Committee of the Regions a Clean Air Programme for Europe Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from medium combustion plants Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants and amending Directive 2003/35/EC Proposal for a Council Decision on the acceptance of the Amendment to the 1999 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone".
  14. "COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the documents Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and he Committee of the Regions a Clean Air Programme for Europe Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from medium combustion plants Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants and amending Directive 2003/35/EC Proposal for a Council Decision on the acceptance of the Amendment to the 1999 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone".

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