Krk LNG Terminal

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.
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Krk LNG Terminal (also known as Hrvatska LNG and LNG Croatia) is an operating floating LNG terminal in Croatia.

Location

The map below shows the location of Omišalj, the approximate location of the project, on the island of Krk, in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County.

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Project Details

  • Owner: HEP 85.00%, Plinacro 15.00%[1]
  • Parent: HEP 85.00%, Plinacro 15.00%[1]
  • Location: Omišalj, Krk Island, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia
  • Coordinates: 45.066667, 14.6 (approximate)
  • Capacity: 2 mtpa[2]
  • Cost: €233.6 million (US$256.2 million)[3]
  • Financing:
    • Connecting Europe Facility grant (2014) of €4,758,382 (US$5,788,847)[4]
    • Connecting Europe Facility grant (2015) of €514,994 (US$626,528)[5]
    • Connecting Europe Facility grant (2016) of €747,000 (US$908,849)[6]
    • Connecting Europe Facility grant (2016) of €101,400,000 (US$111.2 million)[7]
    • Croatian government grant of €100 million (US$109.4 million)[3]
    • Equity investment of €32.2 million (US$35.3 million) from HEP and Plinacro
  • Status: Operating[8]
  • Type: Import
  • FID Status: Pre-FID[9]
  • Start Year: 2021[2]
  • Associated Infrastructure: Városföld–Slobodnica pipeline

Note: mtpa = million tonnes per year; bcfd = billion cubic feet per day; bcm/y = billion cubic meters/year

Background

Krk LNG Terminal is a floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) regasification terminal in Croatia.[10][11] The project was originally planned to be an onshore regasification facility, but was switched to a FLNG proposal in 2016.[12][13] The project is a part of the European Union's Projects of Common Interest (PCI), making it eligible for public funding. The project includes construction of an 18 km pipeline, part of the Omišalj-Zlobin-Bosiljevo-Sisak-Kozarac-Slobodnica LNG main evacuation pipeline, which will act as an extension of the existing Hungary-Croatia interconnection (Városföld – Slobodnica), providing 2.6 bcm/y from the LNG terminal to the Croatian gas transmission system.[14] The maximum capacity will eventually be 7 billion cubic meters per year.[15]

The project was originally planned to go into service in 2018.[16] The project would cost about US$418 million in total.[17] As of May 2017, the investment decision had been pushed back to Q1 2018.[18]

In August 2017 it was reported that preliminary work had started on the terminal, with commissioning planned for 2019.[19] Initial annual capacity is planned to be 2 billion cubic meters (1.5 mtpa) and may be increased to 5 billion cubic meters (3.7 mtpa).[20]

In November 2018 LNG Croatia selected Golar Power and its proposal to convert an existing LNG carrier to an FSRU at a cost of 159.6 million euros ($180.8 million).[21] This procurement of a smaller than planned FSRU reduced the overall project costs to €233.6 million (US$256.2 million).[3] At a December 2018 auction two Croatian companies, INA and HEP, expressed interest in buying up to 520 million cubic meters of gas per year, representing just a third of the terminal's annual output.[22]

As of September 2019, the project was still on track to start operations in January of 2021, and begin turning profits in 2025. Once online, the terminal will have an annual capacity of 2.6 billion cubic meters of gas, equivalent to the country’s annual usage. The EU contributed 101 million euros ($111 million) to develop the Krk terminal, with the Croatian government matching the amount and national grid HEP d.d. and state-owned gas pipeline operator Plinacro d.d. adding about 15 million euros each. The project is the first of its kind for Croatia, which has the EU’s fifth-longest coastline, and is the result of the U.S. lobbying to reduce the country’s need for Russian gas.[23]

According to Gas Infrastructure Europe, construction was underway as of December 2019.[24]

As of March 2020, the terminal has received binding offers from just two buyers that have committed to a total of 520 million cubic metres of gas per year (mcm/y), significantly less than the 1.5 bcm/y needed for the terminal to break even.[25]

In June 2020, Croatia's minister for energy and environment Tomislav Coric announced that the terminal will commence operations on January 1, 2021, with full capacity booked for the next few years. LNG Croatia informed that the terminal capacities have been sold out until October 2023, and that up to October 2027 capacity of 2.1 billion cubic meters of gas annually has already been locked in. Confirmed customers include Powerglobe Qatar LLC, Hungary’s state-owned energy group MVM, the Croatian unit of Swiss-based MET Holding, and two Croatian energy firms.[26]

In June 2020, PowerGlobe Qatar booked all free capacities at Croatia's Krk LNG terminal until 2023.[27]

In September 2020, Hungary signed a six-year agreement with Shell to receive 250 million cubic metres of LNG per year (mcm/year) via the terminal. This means that by the end of 2027, gas arriving from the Krk LNG terminal will meet 10% of Hungary's gas needs.[28]

FSRU LNG Croatia, converted from Golar Viking LNG carrier at the Hudong-Zhonghua shipyard in China, arrived in Krk in December 2020 and started commercial operations in January 2021, as scheduled. The FSRU facility, which was purchased from and is operated by Golar LNG Limited, has a technical capacity of 1.9 MTPA. The capacity at the terminal has been booked by HEP, MFGK Croatia, MET Croatia Energy Trade and Power Globe Qatar. [29]

Commercial operations began on January 1, 2021.[8]

Financing

In February 2017, the project was awarded a grant for the construction of the terminal of €101,400,000 (US$111.2 million) under the European Union's Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) .[7] This followed three previous grants for studies from the CEF of €4,758,382 (US$5,788,847)[4], €514,994 (US$626,528)[5], and €747,000 (US$908,849)[6]. The CEF has supported the project with grants totalling €107,420,376 (US$118,524,224).

The Croatian government has provided a further grant of €100 million (US$109.4 million), and HEP and Plinacro have made an equity investment of €32.2 million (US$35.3 million).[3]

Expansion Project Details

  • Owner: Golar Power
  • Parent: LNG Croatia LLC
  • Location: Omišalj, Krk Island, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia
  • Coordinates: 45.066667, 14.6 (approximate)
  • Capacity: 4.4 bcm/y[30]
  • Status: Proposed
  • Type: Import
  • FID Status: Pre-FID[9]
  • Start Year:
  • Associated Infrastructure: Városföld–Slobodnica pipeline

Note: mtpa = million tonnes per year; bcfd = billion cubic feet per day; bcm/y = billion cubic meters/year

Expansion Background

According to industry group ENTSOG, in the Ten-Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP) 2020, there is an expansion planned of 4.4 bcm/year (3.2 mtpa).[30]

Opposition

Due to environmental and economic concerns, the terminal remains largely unpopular among local residents. According to Food and Water Europe, "...the project is now strongly opposed by all local municipalities from Krk Island, the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County and by local environmental NGOs."[31] In March 2018, thousands of protestors gathered in Rijeka, Croatia to oppose the terminal.[32]

Local opposition groups cite concern over how the terminal will impact the bay and its marine life. The terminal plans to use sea water from the bay in the process of converting product from a liquid to a gas, which will cool the water, leading to environmental consequences for the small bay. The terminal operators also plan to use chlorine to protect the pipes against algae and shells, which will cause further environmental damage. Local groups opposing the terminal include Zelena Akcija and Eko Kvarner. Environmentalists and Krk local municipalities organized a protest against the terminal in March of 2018. Meanwhile, the government passed a new law which would speed up construction of the terminal.[33]

International opposition has warned that the terminal would likely be importing fracked gas from America, making it a particularly detrimental project for the climate.[31]

Articles and resources

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 2020 World LNG Report, page 102, International Gas Union, April 27, 2020
  2. 2.0 2.1 The LNG Industry: Annual Report 2020, page 38, International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers, accessed April 29, 2020
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 John Snyder, Floating LNG ratchets up in the Mediterranean, Riviera Maritime Media, Apr. 15, 2020
  4. 4.0 4.1 Studies for LNG terminal Krk: legal & financial advisory, FEED, main design, tender documentation for EPC, power supply system documentation, European Commission, accessed Jan. 13, 2021
  5. 5.0 5.1 Field and laboratory investigation studies and preparation of reports, European Commission, accessed Jan. 13, 2021
  6. 6.0 6.1 Studies for the LNG terminal Krk FSRU solution, European Commission, accessed Jan. 13, 2021
  7. 7.0 7.1 Construction of LNG terminal Krk, European Commission, accessed Jan. 13, 2021
  8. 8.0 8.1 Dragana Petrushevska, Croatia's Krk LNG terminal starts commercial operations See News, January 4, 2021
  9. 9.0 9.1 TYNDP - Annex A - Projects Tables ENTSOG, accessed February 4, 2021
  10. Hrvatska LNG Terminal, A Barrel Full, accessed April 2017
  11. About us, LNG Croatia website, accessed July 2017.
  12. LNG Regasification Terminal in Krk, Croatia, LNG Croatia document, July 2015.
  13. Croatia considers FSRU for Krk LNG imports, LNG World Shipping, 3 Mar. 2016.
  14. Development of LNG terminal in Krk(HR)(Phase I)and connecting pipeline Omišalj–Zlobin(HR), European Commission, accessed December 2, 2019
  15. Austria, Food and Water Watch Europe, accessed December 3, 2019
  16. Croatia floating LNG terminal taking a year longer to finish, Reuters, 25 Jan. 2017.
  17. EU approves EUR 102m grant for LNG terminal in Croatia, Croatian Government press release, 17 Feb. 2017.
  18. Decision on LNG Terminal on Krk Delayed for Next Year, Total Croatia News, 3 May 2017.
  19. Zoran Radosavljevic, "Croatia starts preliminary work on Adriatic LNG terminal," EURACTIV.com, Aug 18, 2017
  20. "About Us," LNG Croatia LLC, accessed August 2017
  21. Croatia picks Golar Power to supply future LNG terminal, Reuters, Nov. 9, 2018
  22. Je li plutajući LNG terminal osuđen na to da postane gubitaš i prije nego što je izgrađen, tportal, Dec. 24, 2018
  23. Jasmina Kuzmanovic Floating Adriatic Port Closer to Easing Russia Gas Dominance, Bloomberg, September 10, 2019
  24. LNG Database Gas Infrastructure Europe, accessed December 6, 2019
  25. Jelena Prtorić, Is the EU locking into natural gas despite its promise to lead the global phase-out of fossil fuels? Equal Times, March 9, 2020
  26. Igor Ilic, "Croatia's new LNG terminal to start operations in January fully booked," Reuters, Jun. 16, 2020
  27. Iskra Pavlova, PowerGlobe Qatar books all free capacities at Croatia's Krk LNG terminal for next 3 years SeeNews, June 15, 2020
  28. Iskra Pavlova, Shell to supply gas to Hungary via Croatia's Krk LNG terminal SeeNews, September 7, 2020
  29. GIIGNL 2021 Annual Report, accessed May 5, 2021
  30. 30.0 30.1 ENTSOG TYNDP 2020 - Annex A - Projects Tables, 12 Nov 2019
  31. 31.0 31.1 Croatia, Food and Water Europe, accessed December 3, 2019
  32. Thousands Protest against Floating LNG Terminal, Total Croatia News, March 3, 2018
  33. Igor Ilic, Croatia's Krk LNG project faces opposition as investment decision looms, Reuters, February 19, 2018

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