Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline (TAPI) is an under construction pipeline delivering gas from Turkmenistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.[1][2]


The TAPI pipeline will begin in Turkmenistan and travel through Afghanistan to reach Pakistan and India. It will cross the cities of Herat and Kandahar in Afghanistan towards Pakistan, and cross the cities of Quetta and Multan in Pakistan towards its final destination, the Indian town of Fazilka, which is located on the Pakistan-India border in the state of Punjab.[1]

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Project Details

  • Operator: Turkmengaz[1]
  • Capacity: 33 billion cubic meters per year[1]
  • Length: 1,814 km / 1,127 mi[1]
  • Cost: US$7 billion[3]
  • Financing: US$5.2 billion in equity from Turkmengaz, Afghan Gas, Gail India and Inter State Gas System Pakistan; US$1.8 billion in debt from the Asian Development Bank, the Islamic Corporation for the Insurance of Investment and the Export Credit, and the Islamic Development Bank[4]
  • Status: Construction[1]
  • Start Year: 2022


The TAPI Project was originally conceived in the 1990s with a view to monetize Turkmenistan’s gas reserves through gas exports to Afghanistan and Pakistan, and, potentially to India. In March 2003, India was invited to join the Project.[5]

In 2012, the governments of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India formally agreed to build the transnational pipeline to supply approximately 30 billion cubic meters per year of Turkmen natural gas to India. Kandahar and Herat provinces will be the host provinces of the TAPI pipeline gas project as they would cover over 735 kilometers of Afghanistan - almost 44 percent of the pipeline. Afghanistan would earn a total of $400 million per year by way of a "transit" fee.[6]

In 2013, Turkmengaz, Afghan Gas Enterprise, Interstate Gas Service, and GAIL were nominated as shareholders by their respective countries to promote and invest in the pipeline project.[1]

In 2016, the four countries involved in the pipeline project signed an initial investment agreement to develop the TAPI. The Project will be owned by a special purpose consortium company, TPCL, which was established in November of 2014 by Turkmengaz (Turkmenistan), Afghan Gas Enterprise (Afghanistan), Interstate Gas Service (Pakistan) and GAIL (India) to develop the $7.5bn project. Turkmengaz is the majority shareholder in TPCL.[5] [7][1] Pakistan and Turkmenistan have signed the finalized version of the Host Government Agreement (HGA) for the Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan India (TAPI) pipeline.[8] In September 2019 it was reported that Turkmenistan and Pakistan had agreed to reach financial closure on the project in early 2020.[9]

The pipeline was originally expected to become operational in 2021.[1] However, in November 2021 it was reported that construction of the pipeline was on hold due to political unrest in Afghanistan.[10]


The 1,814 kilometer, 56-inch diameter, transnational TAPI natural gas pipeline will deliver gas from the Galkynysh gas field in Turkmenistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. The pipeline will begin with 27 billion cubic meters of gas per year and will increase to 33 billion cubic meters of gas per year after the first year of operation. The pipeline is currently scheduled to go into operation in 2021.[1]

There are conflicting reports about the status of the Turkmen section of the pipeline. In February 2018 leaders from the four countries celebrated the completion of the Turkmen section of the pipeline.[11] However in April 2019 the TAPI Pipeline company was still ordering a length of pipe that corresponded with the length of the Turkmen section of the pipeline, suggesting that it had yet to be built.[12] In July 2020 Turkmengaz solicited Saudi company Somo Al Mamlakah to invest in the Turkmen section of the pipeline.[13]

The Afghan section of the pipeline was reportedly under construction as of 2018.[8] Construction of the Pakistani section was scheduled to start in October 2019.[14] In January 2020 it was reported that construction of the Afghan section was delayed because of land acquisition problems.[15] In September 2020 top officials of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan signed documents committing the two countries to building the pipeline.[16]

Pakistan and India are expected to purchase 42 percent (approximately 14bcm) each while Afghanistan is expected to purchase 16 percent (approximately 5.11bcm) of the total volume of produced gas.[1] As per the terms of agreement, Afghanistan will charge $400 million as transit fee.[1]

Cost and financing

Originally estimated to be costing US$10 billion, in November 2018 it was announced that the project costs had been cut by 30% from to US$7 billion.[3]

The US$7 billion financing for the project is split approximately 75% equity – 25% debt. On equity, Turkmengaz is investing US$4.42 billion, with US$260 million each from Afghan Gas, Gail India and Inter State Gas System Pakistan. Debt financing is being provided via loans from the Asian Development Bank (US$500 million), the Islamic Corporation for the Insurance of Investment and the Export Credit (US$300 million) and the Islamic Development Bank (US$700 million committed, US$300 million under negotiation).[4] It has also been reported that the project has been supported by import/export credit agencies in Germany and Italy, which will fund exports of equipment for the project from those countries.[3]

ADB’s assistance in Afghanistan, subsequently financial assistance of the TAPI pipeline, has been placed on hold consistent with its official statement dated 10 November 2021.[17]

Articles and resources


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline, Hydrocarbons Technology, accessed April, 2018
  2. "Turkmenistan, Afghanistan push TAPI gas pipeline again but this is why India is being cautious". ThePrint. 2022-02-07. Retrieved 2022-06-27.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 UPDATE 1-Tapi gas pipeline to move forward after decades of delays, Reuters, Nov. 13, 2018
  4. 4.0 4.1 TRANSACTION DATA: Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) Gas Pipeline (1814KM), IJGlobal, accessed May 5, 2021
  5. 5.0 5.1 Turkmenistan- Afghanistan – Pakistan-India TAPI Pipeline, Ministry of Mines and Petroleum - Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, accessed April, 2018
  6. TAPI Gas Pipeline Agreement Sealed, Tolo News, May 23, 2012
  7. Initial investment agreement for TAPI pipeline signed, The Economic Times, March 4, 2016
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pakistan, Turkmenistan sign pact for TAPI pipeline, Kallanish Energy, Mar. 15, 2019
  9. TAPI gas project: Turkmenistan, Pakistan agree to end financial closure in early 2020, Business Recorder, Sep. 4, 2019
  10. "TAPI project's implementation suspended until situation 'stabilizes' in Afghanistan Read more At: https://www.aninews.in/news/world/asia/tapi-projects-implementation-suspended-until-situation-stabilizes-in-afghanistan20211127181237/". Retrieved 2021-12-10. line feed character in |title= at position 85 (help); External link in |title= (help)
  11. Turkmen section of trans-Afghanistan gas pipeline completed, Euronews, February 28, 2018
  12. Another Turkmen Pipe Mystery, Radio Free Europe, Apr. 4, 2019
  13. Kulpash Konyrova, Turkmenistan offers Saudi to invest in TAPI pipeline, New Europe, Jul. 21, 2020
  14. Pakistan-Turkmenistan to discuss TAPI gas pipeline groundbreaking in August, Business Recorder, Jul. 8, 2019
  15. TAPI pipeline project faces more delays in Afghanistan, Energy World, Jan. 28, 2020
  16. Afghanistan, Turkmenistan Sign Deal On TAPI Pipeline Which Includes India & Pakistan, Eurasian Times, Oct. 1, 2020
  17. "ADB renews commitment to TAPI gas pipeline". pajhwok.com. Retrieved 2022-07-25.

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