EMBA Hunutlu power station

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EMBA Hunutlu power station is an operating power station of at least 1320-megawatts (MW) in Sugözü, Yumurtalık, Adana, Türkiye. It is also known as Yumurtalik Emba power station (former).


Table 1: Project-level location details

Plant name Location Coordinates (WGS 84)
EMBA Hunutlu power station Sugözü, Yumurtalık, Adana, Türkiye 36.81609, 35.85481 (exact)

The map below shows the exact location of the power station.

Loading map...

Unit-level coordinates (WGS 84):

  • Unit 2, Unit 1: 36.81609, 35.85481

Project Details

Table 2: Unit-level details

Unit name Status Fuel(s) Capacity (MW) Technology Start year Retired year
Unit 2 operating coal - subbituminous 660 ultra-supercritical 2022
Unit 1 operating coal - subbituminous 660 ultra-supercritical 2022

Table 3: Unit-level ownership and operator details

Unit name Owner
Unit 2 Emba Elektrik Üretim [100.0%]
Unit 1 Emba Elektrik Üretim [100.0%]

Project-level coal details

  • Coal source(s): imported (South America, South Africa, Australia)


In June 2012, Emba Elektrik Üretim applied to build a 1,200-MW coal-fired power plant in Yumurtalık district, where numerous other proposed coal plant projects are located.[1] An environmental permitting meeting held in Sugözü in September 2012 was met with protests from locals and environmentalists.[2] There was no news on the project for several years, and it seemed possible that it had been abandoned.

Along with numerous other proposals, the proposal was revived in 2014, as the 1,200-MW, two-unit Hunutlu plant. The plant would cost €1.2 billion, or $1.3 billion.[3] The project began the public comment period for environmental permitting in June 2014.[4] In 2015, the land was expropriated, with the price being set at 100 lira per square meter.[5]

On July 9, 2015, Emba Elektrik Üretim, a Turkish subsidiary of China's Shanghai Electric Power (SEP), gained the Construction and Generation License for the plant from the Turkish Energy Market Regulatory Authority, marking the project’s approval by the Turkish government for construction and operation.[6]

Planet imagery of the plant in late June 2022.

On October 26, 2017, an EPC Contract for the 2 x 660 MW Hunutlu Thermal Power Plant Project was signed by a consortium of China's State Power Investment Corporation and AVIC-INTL of China with EMBA. State Power Investment Corporation's subsidiary Shanghai Electric Power is in talks to finance the project at a cost of US$1.7 billion dollars. Shanghai Electric and Avic are both part of project sponsor Emba Elektrik Üretim.[7] The project will be constructed by CLP Power Engineering.[8]

Satellite photography from Planet showed what looked to be construction occurring between January 2019 and June 2019.

Construction of the plant officially began in September 2019.[9] In October 2021 it was reported that the plant would begin operations by the end of 2021.[10]

According to February 2022 reports, a 43.4 MW wind farm and a 33 MW solar power plant will be installed at the Hunutlu Thermal Power Plant site.[11]

The coal plant was still slated to come online by the end of 2022.[12] Planet imagery (right) captured on June 29, 2022 showed smoke being emitted from one of the power station's units.

In October 2022, the power station successfully passed the required 168-hour trial operation period.[13] As of October 19, the plant was fully operational.[14]


Adana Ekoloji Dernegi are campaigning against this and other coal plants proposed for the Adana region.[15]

In June 2020, Turkish groups launched an international e-petition calling on Chinese banks involved in the project to stop their financing.[16]

Local communities in the Adana region oppose the Hunutlu coal-fired power station's development


Emba Elektrik Üretim (EMBA Electricity Production Co. Inc.) describes itself "as a joint venture company invested by Chinese Shanghai Electric Power Co., Avic-Intl Project Engineering Company (a subsidiary of AVIC) and two Turkish local investors" who are "developing an imported coal fired thermal power plant project in Turkey with the capacity of 2x 660 MW with an investment amount of 1,7 billion USD."[17] In February 2018 the construction contract was reported to have been signed between the above named companies and EMBA Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. and CLP Power Engineering for 889.7 million USD.[18] Shanghai Electric Power, also known as SEP, is not to be confused with Shanghai Electric Group. SEP is owned by State Power Investment Corporation.[19] This means that the parent companies of the project are State Power Investment Corporation, AVIC International Holding Corporation, and two Turkish local investors.

Environmental issues

According to campaigners, the site of the proposed coal plant is internationally protected under the Bern Convention on Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (1979), especially regarding the preservation of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas).[20]

The power station was built on the Yumurtalık fault zone, which was highlighted as a concern following the devastating February 2023 earthquakes in Turkey.[21] In March 2023, an environmental lawyer called for the power station to cease operations immediately to avoid catastrophe, noting that hydrogen tanks located at the power station posed significant fire and toxic exposure risk if damaged.[22]

Air pollution threat – Study

A June 2020 study from the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air estimates that the proposed EMBA Hunutlu coal plant would, when combined with emissions from other plants, result in over 100,000 people being exposed to high levels of air pollution. The study estimates the project would cause an estimated 2000 premature deaths over its operating life as well as depositing mercury across the Iskenderun Bay area affecting croplands and fisheries.[23]


In 2016, the project was subsidized 3500 million lira in the form of tax exemptions, and also imported hundreds of millions of dollars worth of tax free machinery.[24]

Legal action

A court case has been ongoing in Ankara since 2018.[25] Related to this and other lawsuits concerning the port and plant construction, in February 2020 an expert report was published.[26] Its main findings are:

  • The construction plans for sea and land are not compatible, and together these plans are contrary to the İskenderun Bay (Adana-Mersin-Hatay) Integrated Coastal Areas Plan's relevant principles.
  • In the EIA reports and other reports, important aspects regarding the spawning grounds of sea turtles are not investigated and addressed comprehensively; there is no mention of how the sea turtles (Caretta Caretta) will be affected by coal-carrying ships while trying to reach spawning areas.
  • In one of the reports (the scientific report), there are many precautions proposed to be taken to protect the sea turtles under protection. If all of the measures are followed completely, the coal plant can be considered as not risky, but it is not realistic or possible to implement all these precautions completely.


The financing for the estimated US$1.7 billion project has been expected to come via 20% equity and 80% debt. In April 2020, it was confirmed that a 15-year US$1.381 billion loan has been arranged for the project by China Development Bank, with Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), two commercial banks, also participating in the loan.[27][28]

Articles and Resources


  1. Detaylar: Emba Elektrik Üretim A.Ş., EPDK website, accessed May 2014.
  2. Yumurtalık'a Yeni Bir Termik Santral Daha, Haberler, Sept. 22, 2012.
  3. HUNUTLU ENTEGRE TERMİK SANTRALİ: ÇEVRESEL ETKI DEĞERLENDIRMESI BASVURU DOSYASI (Environmental Impact Assessment Application File), MGS Proje Müsavirlik Mühendislik Ticaret Ltd, 10 Mar. 2014.
  4. Hunutlu Entegre Termik Santralı projesi ÇED raporu görüşe açıldı, Enerji Günlügü, 4 June 2014.
  5. Yumurtalık Sugözünde Kamulaştırma Süreci Başladı, Sanalbasin, 2 Jan. 2015.
  6. Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) 85780303-, 09.11.2015
  7. Yumurtalık'a 1 milyar 700 milyon dolarlık termik santral, İHA news agency, Oct. 25, 2017.
  8. EMBA Elektrik Hunutlu Termik için düğmeye bastı, Enerji Günlüğü, Feb. 10, 2018.
  9. 土耳其胡努特鲁燃煤电厂工程正式开工建设, BJX, Sep. 23, 2019
  10. Turkey softens coal import restrictions, Argus Media, Oct. 21, 2021
  11. Hunutlu Termik, güneş ve rüzgarla hibrit santrale dönüşecek Kaynak: Emba, Hunutlu Termik’i güneş ve rüzgarla hibrit santrale dönüştürecek, Enerji Gunlugu, February 3, 2022
  12. Hunutlu termik santralinde hibrit RES ve GES kurulacak, Yesil Ekonomi, December 31, 2021
  13. 中企在土耳其投资最大的电厂全面投产, China International Contractors Association, October 18, 2022
  14. Largest China-invested coal-fired power plant in Turkey now operational, Energy Central, October 19, 2022
  15. ADANA’DA KÖMÜR SANTRALLERİ, adana ekoloji dernegi
  16. No More Coal Plants in Adana! #CleanAir4Adana #AdanayaTemizHava, change.org, Jun. 10, 2020
  17. "Emba Power: About Us", Emba Power website, accessed Nov 2017.
  18. "EMBA Elektrik Hunutlu Termik için düğmeye bastı", Enerji Günlüğü, 10 Feb 2018.
  19. "Corporate Profile," Shanghai Electric Power Co., Ltd., accessed 28 May 2018
  20. "İğneada ve Longoz Ormanları haykırıyor: Termik Santral'e HAYIR!" T24, October 31, 2012
  21. "Fay hattındaki termik santral ‘görmezden geliniyor’: Depremde tanklar patlayabilir" Diken, April 23, 2023
  22. "Fay hattı üzerindeki santraller tam kapasite çalışmaya devam ediyor" Bianet, March 3, 2023
  23. Air Quality and Health Impacts of the Proposed EMBA Hunutlu Coal Power Project Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air, June 2020
  24. "Coal & Climate Change - 2017," Önder Algedik, Aug 2017
  25. "Bilirkişiden ‘termik santral halk sağlığını bozar’ raporu" Hürriyet, January 28, 2018
  26. "Emba Hunutlu coal power plant, BankTrack Dodgy Deal update" Accessed March 5, 2020
  27. SEP Completes Facility Agreement Signing for Turkey Hunutlu Thermal Power Plant Project under Belt and Road Initiative, Shanghai Electric Power, April 2, 2020
  28. "China's Banks Asked to Stop Funding Turkey's Coal Industry". BloombergQuint. Retrieved 2020-12-04.

Additional data

To access additional data, including an interactive map of coal-fired power stations, a downloadable dataset, and summary data, please visit the Global Coal Plant Tracker on the Global Energy Monitor website.