Enbridge Line 9 Oil Pipeline
|This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.|
Enbridge Line 9 Oil Pipeline is a major oil pipeline in the Enbridge Pipeline System that conveys petroleum between Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The 30-inch diameter pipeline primarily transports light crude oil, although crude oil blends and heavy crudes including diluted bitumen (dilbit) will also be transported on Line 9.
The pipeline runs from Sarnia, Ontario to Montreal, Quebec. The section known as Line 9A travels from Sarnia to Enbridge’s Westover Station near Hamilton, Ontario. The section known as Line 9B travels from Westover Station to Montreal, Quebec.
- Operator: Enbridge
- Capacity: 300,000 barrels per day
- Length: 832 kilometers / 517 miles
- Diameter: 30-inches
- Status: Operating
- Start Year: 1976
Line 9 original flowed west to east, carrying oil sands crude to Quebe refineries. Enbridge reversed the direction of the flow to east to west in 1998 as imported foreign oil sources refined in Quebec became comparatively less expensive.
In July 2012, the National Energy Board approved Enbridge's application to reverse the direction of the pipeline flow in the section of the pipeline known as 9A, which runs from Sarnia, Ontario to North Westover, Ontario. Project work related to the 9A reversal was completed in November 2013.
In November 2012, Enbridge filed an application pertaining to the section known as 9B, which runs from Montreal, Quebec to North Westover Station, to increase its capacity from 240,000 barrels per day to 300,000 barrels per day, reverse the direction of the pipeline flow, and allow for the transportation of heavy crude.
In December 2015, Enbridge completed the reversal of the flow in Line 9B, resulting in the entire Line 9 now flowing west to east.
In February 2014, CTV W5 found that Line 9 had a total of 35 spills, significantly more than the seven spills the National Energy Board said it was aware of and the 13 that Enbridge had claimed was the total.
The Line 9B expansion and reversal project garnered significant opposition by environmental organizations and Tribes. In Enbridge's application before the National Energy Board, 45 intervening parties filed written evidence, 40 provided oral final argument, and 11 provided written final argument, many of which expressed concerns regarding pipeline safety and integrity and environmental impacts of potential spills.
The project has resulted in numerous protests, including in Toronto, Montreal, and Cambridge. Anti-pipeline activists have also broken into Enbridge facilities on multiple occasions, resulting in the pipeline being temporarily shut down at least four times.
Anti-pipeline activists Vanessa Gray, Sarah Scanlon and Stone Stewart faced charges of trespassing, mischief over $5,000, and mischief endangering life for briefly shutting down the pipeline in December 2015.
In July 2017, Canada's Supreme Court rejected a challenge to the Line 9 expansion and reversal project, determining its consultation with the Chippewas of the Thames First Nation was "manifestly adequate."
Articles and resources
- Line 9B Reversal and Line 9 Capacity Expansion Project, Enbridge, accessed September 2017
- Enbridge’s Energy Infrastructure Assets Enbrdige, July 22, 2020
- Enbridge Line 9 pipeline appeal approved by Supreme Court, CBC News, 10 Mar. 2016
- Enbridge Pipelines Inc. - Line 9B Reversal and Line 9 Capacity Expansion Project - OH-002-2013, National Energy Board, accessed September 2017
- Oil from Enbridge's Line 9B begins pumping into Montreal, CBC News, 11 Dec. 2015
- Line 9 has had significantly more spills than previously stated, W5 reports, CTV W5, 21 Feb. 2014
- Montrealers demonstrate against Enbridge Line 9 Pipeline, Global News, 18 Dec. 2016
- Enbridge to beef up security after recent cases of pipeline sabotage, National Observer, 17 Jan. 2016
- Line 9 shut down for a fourth time, The Council of Canadians, 26 Jan. 2016
- Supreme Court of Canada Dismisses Challenge on Enbridge Line 9, Bloomberg, 26 Jul. 2017