Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (also known as ESPO pipeline or ESPOOP; Russian: Нефтепровод "Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан" (ВСТО); Chinese: 东西伯利亚-太平洋输油管道) is a pipeline system for exporting Russia crude oil to the Asia-Pacific markets (Japan, China, and South Korea). The pipeline is built and operated by Russian pipeline company Transneft.


The original project of this pipeline was proposed by the Russian oil company Yukos in 2001 as an independent oil pipeline. The project proposed to build a pipeline from Angarsk, where Yukos operated a refinery, to Daqing in northern China.[1] At the same time, Transneft proposed an alternative project to pipe oil from Taishet in Irkutsk Oblast to the Far East port Kozmino near Nakhodka.[2] In May 2003, the Russian Government decided to combine these projects and that Transneft would be in charge of the pipeline, while Yukos would supply the oil.[3] On 29 May 2003, Russia and China signed an agreement on construction of the pipeline.[2] On 31 December 2004, the Russian government approved the construction of the pipeline from Taishet in East Siberia to Pervoznaya in the Pacific region.[4]

Construction of the pipeline started in April 2006.[5] On 4 October 2008, the section between Taishet and Talakan was launched in a reverse to pump oil from Surgutneftegas-owned Alinsky deposit.[6]

Phase I (ESPO 1)

The first stage of the pipeline was completely laid in May 2009 and the whole first stage was reversed in December 2009. The terminal at Kozmino was inaugurated by Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin on 28 December 2009.[7]

Phase I runs from Tayshet, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia to Skovorodino, Amur Oblast, Russia.

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Phase II (ESPO 2)

Phase II runs from Skovorodino, Amur Oblast, Russia to Kozmino sea port, Primorsky Krai, Russia.[12]

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  • Operator: Transneft-Vostok[12]
  • Owner: Transneft[12]
  • Parent company: Transneft[9]
  • Capacity: 50 mtpa[10][11]
  • Length: 2046 km[12]
  • Diameter: 1020 mm, 1220 mm[12]
  • Status: Operating[12]
  • Start year: 2012[12]
  • Cost:
  • Financing:
  • Associated infrastructure:

Skovorodino-Mohe Oil Pipeline

The Srovorodino-Mohe pipeline runs from Skovorodino, Amur Oblast, Russia, to the Russian-Chinese border in the Mohe county, Daxing'anling Prefecture, China.[13][14]

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  • Operator: Transneft-Vostok[15]
  • Owner: Transneft[13]
  • Parent company: Transneft[9]
  • Capacity: 30 mtpa[13]
  • Length: 64 km[13]
  • Diameter:
  • Status: Operating[13][16]
  • Construction Year: 2009[13]
  • Start year: 2013[13]
  • Cost:
  • Financing:
  • Associated infrastructure:

Russia–China Crude Oil Pipeline

The Russia–China Crude Oil Pipeline 中俄原油管道 is the segment of Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline in China. The segment is also known as Mohe-Daqing Oil Pipeline 漠大原油管道(漠河-大庆), which contains two mostly parallel pipelines. [17]

Russia–China Crude Oil Pipeline 1 中俄原油管道一线

Russia–China Crude Oil Pipeline 1 runs from Mohe county, Daxing'anling Prefecture, to Daqing city, Heilongjiang in China.[18]

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  • Operator:China National Petroleum Corporation(中国石油天然气集团有限公司)[19]
  • Owner:
  • Parent company:
  • Capacity:15 mtpa[19]
  • Length: 926 km[19]
  • Diameter:820 mm[19]
  • Status: Operating [17]
  • Start year: 2011[17]
  • Cost:670 million RMB
  • Financing:
  • Associated infrastructure:

Russia–China Crude Oil Pipeline 2 中俄原油管道二线

Russia–China Crude Oil Pipeline 2 runs from Mohe county, Daxing'anling Prefecture, to Daqing city, Heilongjiang in China.[18]

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  • Operator:China National Petroleum Corporation(中国石油天然气集团有限公司)[18]
  • Owner:
  • Parent company:
  • Capacity:15 mtpa[20]
  • Length: 955.1 km[18]
  • Diameter:813 mm[20]
  • Status:Operating[20]
  • Start year:2018[20]
  • Cost:
  • Financing:
  • Associated infrastructure:


The pipeline is laid by the route of Tayshet-Kazachinskoye-Skovorodino, Skovorodino-Kozmino.[21] Because of environmental organizations' protests, the initial pipeline route was moved 40 km north of Lake Baikal. Instead of going through Buryatia, it was built through the Sakha Republic.[22] The Skovorodino extension branch pipeline extends through Mohe to Daqing, China.[23]

There is a plan to lay a parallel Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok gas pipeline alongside the oil pipeline.[24][25]

Technical features

The initial capacity of the 122-cm diameter pipeline was 600,000 barrels per day. By 2016 the capacity of the pipeline increased to 1,000,000 barrels per day, with plans to expand the pipeline to 1,600,000 barrels per day by 2025. The capacity of the link to China is 600,000 barrels per day and its section in the Russian territory cost US$600 million.[26][27][28]

The pipeline consists of 32 pumping stations, including 13 with tank farms with a total capacity of 2.67 million cubic meters. For feeding pumping stations with electricity, a 35 MW power station was built near the town of Olyokminsk in the Sakha Republic. It is fired by the crude oil from the ESPO pipeline. The power station is designed for independent operation in demanding Arctic temperature conditions.[29] The terminal at Kozmino has a tank farm with a capacity of 350,000 cubic meters. The loading capacity of the terminal is 300,000 barrels per day.[28][30]

The first stage was built by Systema SpecStroy, Krasnodarstroytransgaz, Vostok Story, Promstroy, Amerco Int. and IP Set Spb.[31][32] Five 16V32 crude oil-fired engines for the pipeline-related power station were delivered in summer 2008 by Wärtsilä.[29] The first stage of the pipeline cost US$12.27 billion and the export terminal cost $1.74 billion.[31]

Resource base

The pipeline is supplied from the oil fields of Tomsk Oblast and the Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug in Western Siberia along the existing Omsk–Irkutsk pipeline that joins the ESPO pipeline in Taishet, as well as oil provinces of Eastern Siberia. At the initial stage 22 million tons of oil is supplied by Rosneft and 8 million tons by Surgutneftegas.


Environmental justice

Photo Credit: Environmental Justice Atlas, http://bit.ly/2xDraGO

The pipeline drew opposition from a number of environmental groups and their supporters, including Greenpeace, UNESCo, and WWF, along with regional and local groups.[33] The opposition included street protests, petitions, and other visible mobilization against the pipeline, which ultimately contributed to a change in the first design of the pipeline as proposed by environmental organizations.[33]

Embezzlement allegations

In November 2010, one of the minor shareholders of Transneft, Alexey Navalny, accused the company for US$4 billion embezzlement during the construction of the pipeline.[34][34] These accusations were denied by Nikolay Tokarev, head of Transneft.[34]

Dispute with CNPC

In 2011, a dispute rose over payments for oil delivery through EPSO-1, Skovorodino-Mohe and Mohe-Daqing pipelines. Transneft alleged that China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) violated its supply contract, an allegation that CNPC did not acknowledge. The contract stipulate the monthly volumes of oil according to the agreed price formula, which is less than the spot price of oil.[35][36]

Articles and resources


  1. Helmer, John (2005-04-29). "China beats Japan in Russian pipeline race". Asia Times. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "China, Russia sign oil pipeline agreement". China Daily. 2003-05-29. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  3. Helmer, John (2008-11-01). "China ties up Russia's crude - again". Asia Times. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  4. "Russia approves Pacific pipeline". BBC News. 2004-12-31. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  5. "Transneft Sets to Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline". Kommersant. 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  6. Blagov, Sergei (2008-10-22). "Russia sees eastern pipeline as a "major victory"". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  7. Bryanski, Gleb (2009-12-28). "Russia's Putin launches new Pacific oil terminal". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 "Нефтепровод Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан (Тайшет - Сковородино ВСТО-1)". energybase.ru. Retrieved 2023-02-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Transneft". Transneft. January 13, 2022. Retrieved March 1, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Dmitrieva, Anastasia; Griffin, Rosemary (2019-11-27). "Russia targets Asia with expanded ESPO pipeline, competes with Saudi Arabia". www.spglobal.com. Retrieved 2022-04-01.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 "На 10 лет раньше плана. Нефтепровод Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан вышел на максимальную мощность" (in русский). Retrieved 2023-02-01.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 "Нефтепровод Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан (Сковородино - Козьмино ВСТО-2)". energybase.ru. Retrieved 2023-02-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 "Трубопроводы на все случаи жизни". Kommersant. August 14, 2023. Retrieved March 1, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. "МНП Сковородино-Мохэ". neftegaz.ru. May 21, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. "Нефтепровод Сковородино - граница КНР". energybase.ru. Retrieved March 1, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. "ФАС предложила повысить тарифы "Транснефти" по прокачке нефти в 2024 г. на 7,2%". Interfax. October 11, 2023. Retrieved March 1, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 中俄原油管道一线简介, 中国网, 2017/11/14
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 中俄原油管道二线工程环境影响报告书, 中国石油安全环保技术研究院北京中油建设项目劳动安全卫生预评价有限公司, 2015/04
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 中俄原油管道, Baidu百度百科, Retrieved in 2023/02/13
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 中俄原油管道二線工程, Baidu百度百科, Retrieved 2023/2/13
  21. "Transneft ready to bring ESPO Pipeline section online". Pipelines International. Scientific Surveys, Great Southern Press. 2009-12-22. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
  22. Template:Site news
  23. "Russia-China pipeline progressing". Upstream (newspaper). NHST Media Group. 2007-06-15. Retrieved 2007-12-08. {{cite news}}: Text "Upstream Online" ignored (help)
  24. Watkins, Eric (2009-01-29). "Putin says ESPO may have parallel gas line". Oil & Gas Journal. Vol. 107, no. 6. PennWell Corporation. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  25. "Russia's Gazprom mulls new liquefaction plant in country's Far East". Platts. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
  26. "Work on second leg of East-Siberian pipeline could start 2015". RIA Novosti. 2007-07-19. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  27. "China leg of Siberia oil pipeline to cost $600 mln - Transneft". RIA Novosti. 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Trevethan, Catherine. "Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean (ESPO) Pipeline" (GIF). Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Wartsila Announces Major Contracts for 2007". Wärtsilä. Downstream Today. 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  30. "Transneft to start oil terminal construction in Kozmino". Vladivostok News. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Mosolova, Tanya (2007-12-27). "Russia delays Asian oil pipeline to Q3 2009". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  32. "Transneft cites Siberian-Pacific slow-down". Scandinavian Oil-Gas Magazine. 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Pipeline Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean and Baikal lake, Russia, Environmental Justice Atlas, accessed October 2017
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Soldatkin, Vladimir (2011-01-14). "Russia's Transneft denies $4 bln theft". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  36. Reuters Staff. "Russia, China resolve oil pricing dispute - paper". U.S. Retrieved 2023-02-01. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)

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External resources

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