Scunthorpe Integrated Iron & Steel Works
|This article is part of the Global Steel Plant Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.|
Scunthorpe Integrated Iron & Steel Works is an integrated steel plant in Scunthorpe, United Kingdom.
The map below shows the location of the steel plant in Scunthorpe, UK.
Scunthorpe was formed when three steel plants in Scunthorpe merged, Appleby Frodingham Ironworks, Normanby Park works, and Redbourn Hill Ironworks.
Applebly Frodingham ironworks
Frodingham Ironworks was completed in 1865 in Scunthorpe village and Appleby Ironworks in 1876. Crude steel was first made at Frodingham in 1887, though the steel was not viable until 1890. In 1912, Appleby Iron Co and Frodingham Iron Co were combined to become Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. As of 1937, the plant capacity for crude steel was 4.8 million tonnes per year. In 1945 the works was the largest in Britain, with a capacity of 700 million tons pa (5.5% national production), and occupied a 1700 acre site. In 1939 two 22 ft diameter blast furnaces together with associated coke ovens and sinter plant were constructed on a site south of the earlier Appleby works, the location of the former North Lincolnshire Iron works. Here future expansion of the plant was focused replacing plant at the Frodingham works.
In the early 1950s the company expanded two of its blast furnaces (named "Queen Mary", No.9; and "Queen Bess"), and in 1951 took the decision to start the construction of two further new furnaces to a similar diameter. The new furnaces were officially opened in mid 1954, and older plant abandoned, with total capacity increased from 900,000 to 1,250,000 tons pa. The expansion led to the closure of the iron works at Frodingham and the North Lincs works; the last blast furnace in operation at Frodingham, No.1, was shut down in May 1954.
Normanby Park works, John Lysaght
At the beginning of the 20th century John Lysaght was seeking entry to primary steel production to feed his rolling mills in South Wales. Discussions and agreement with Sir Berkeley Sheffield on a lease of the iron ore containing land were made in 1905, and the decision was taken to establish a steelworks, with the estimated capital cost at under £350,000.
During the Depression of 1920–21 the works was temporarily closed – iron and steel production was resumed in 1922 but the works operated at under capacity for the remainder of the decade. At the beginning of the Great Depression of the 1930s the works was reconstructed at a cost of £400,000 to specialize outside general mass market steels – as a result capacity utilizing was at 80% compared to an industry average of nearer 50%, though with very low profit margins. During this period the works was primary supplier to the company's Orb Works in Newport.
Due to oversupply in the industry the blast furnaces were again temporarily shut down in 1938. In 1939 the company was notified by government official that the works work be required to supply steel for projectile Shells.
During the post war period the works was planned to increase output to 500,000 ingot tons pa – by 1955 this figure had been exceeded with production at 600,000 tons pa. Two Linz-Donawitz process converters of 60 tons capacity each were installed in 1964.
Redbourn Hill Ironworks
The Redbourn Hill works shares were held by Monks and Hall (Warrington) in 1905, but sold to the Cwmfelin Steel and Tinplate Company in 1907/8. Initially the works functioned as a source of pig iron. A single 100 ton oxygen based (Oberhausen rotor) steelmaking converter was installed at Redbourn in 1961.
The Redbourn works was originally supplied by two hand charged furnaces built in 1875 and furnaces 3 and 4 were added in 1909 and 1919. In 1951/2 the 1875 furnaces were replaced by a single furnace and No.4 furnace was closed in 1977, and No.3 furnace was closed in 1979; and the last furnace, No.2 was shut down in October 1979.
British Steel Corporation period (1967–1999)
Nationalisation of UK steel operations led to the formation of the British Steel Corporation (BSC) in 1967. Scunthorpe was chosen by the corporation as one of the five main production centres, formally within the Midland regional division of BSC, and designated as a general steel producers. Placing the three steel producers in the town under shared ownership gave opportunities for rationalization and greater efficiency – excess liquid steel and sinter were transferred between the works by rail. Within the whole of BSC the 7 ft plate mill at Appleby-Frodingham (and at West Hartlepool) was closed and production transferred to Lackenby, North Yorkshire in around 1970. Under the rationalization scheme known as the 'Heritage Programme' closures corresponding to 1.59 and 0.81 million tons of ingot steel were announced for Appleby-Frodingham and Redbourn works to take effect in 1973/4 and 1972/3 respectively.
In the early 1970s the UK government announced £3 billion investment plan to modernise the companies main steel production sites (Scunthorpe, Lackenby, Llanwern, Ravenscraig, Port Talbot), increasing productivity by 50%, and reducing the total workforce by 50,000.
At the around the beginning of the 1980s BSC made significant cutbacks to operations at Scunthorpe: all the ore mines closed; and most of the Redbourn works was shut, use of the Lysaght's Normanby Park site ended in 1981 with all liquid steel production at the site ended by 1979.
BSC was privatized in 1988 by the British Steel Act 1988. By 1990 the steelworks had been entirely converted from the open hearth to basic oxygen steel making process – the works employed 7,300 persons and had a production capacity of around 5 million tons pa of steel.
Corus/Tata period (1999–2016)
British Steel period (2016–present)
In April 2016 the long products division including the Scunthorpe works as the only primary steel producer and main employer was sold by Tata to Greybull Capital for a nominal sum of £1. The business was renamed British Steel Ltd.
- Private/State ownership: private
- Parent company: Jingye Group
- Owner: British Steel
- Alternative plant names: Scunthorpe Steelworks, Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co (predecessor), Normanby Park works (predecessor), Redbourn Hill Ironworks (predecessor)
- Location: Brigg Road, Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, DN16 1BP United Kingdom
- GPS Coordinates: 53.580827, -0.616509 (exact)
- Plant status: operating
- Production capacities (thousand tonnes per annum):
- Crude steel: 2800 (BOF)
- Iron: >0 (BF)
- Steelmaking process: integrated (BF)
- Primary steel production equipment: 4 blast furnaces (4x300-tonne); basic oxygen furnace (BOF (1x330-tonne, total # unknown)
Articles and resources
- How we make steel, British Steel, Retrieved on: Mar. 16, 2020
- Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co, 1937 British Industries Fair, Retrieved from: Grace's Guide, Retrieved on: Mar. 16, 2020
- Heal, David W. (1974), "The Steel Industry in Post War Britain", Industrial Britain, David and Charles, ISBN 0 7153 6565 7
- "The British Iron and Steel Industry in 1952" (PDF), The Engineer, vol. 195: 29–31, 2 January 1953
- "The British Iron and Steel Industry in 1953 (No.II)" (PDF), The Engineer, 197: 66–68, 8 January 1954
- "Progress led town's No 1 furnace to be cast aside", Scunthorpe Telegraph, 14 July 2011, retrieved 19 April 2016
- Jones, Edgar (1990), "The Growth of a Business, 1918–1945", A History of GKN, vol. 2, pp. 31–33, 51–54
- Burn, Duncan Lyall (1961), The Economic History of Steelmaking 1867–1939 : A study in competition, Cambridge University Press, p.338, footnote
- Tolliday, Steven (1987), Business, Banking, and Politics: The Case of British Steel, 1918–1939, p. 133
- "The death of ironmaking at Redbourn: Today marks anniversary of historic day", Scunthorpe Telegraph, 12 October 2015, Retrieved on: Apr. 19, 2016
- Pocock, D.C.D. (1990), Ellis, S.; Crowther, D.R. (eds.), "The Development of Scunthorpe", Humber Perspectives : A region through the ages, pp. 332–344, ISBN 0-85958-484-4
- Clay, Rob; Harman, Chris (May 1973), "British Steel in Crisis", International Socialism (58): 15–16, retrieved 16 October 2016
- Fisher, Nigel (14 April 2016), "British Steel Scunthorpe pictures of the past as Greybull plans to bring back historic name at Tata steelworks", Scunthorpe Telegraph, Retrieved on: Apr. 19, 2016
- A new force in the metals industry – background to the proposed merger (PDF), British Steel / Koninklijke Hoogovens, 7 June 1999, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2016, Retrieved on: Apr. 19, 2016
- "History of Britain's steel industry", The Guardian, 1 February 2001, Retrieved on: Apr. 19, 2016
- See Tata Steel Europe
- Tata Steel UK agrees sale and purchase agreement for long products Europe business (press release), Tata, 11 April 2016, Retrieved on: Apr. 19, 2016
- Our Parent Company, British Steel, Retrieved on: May 13, 2020
- Greybull Capital: Rescuer of distressed firms or vulture fund?, Rob Davies and Rupert Neate, The Guardian, May 23, 2019, Retrieved on: May 13, 2020
- Get In Touch, British Steel, Retrieved on: May 13, 2020
- 2016 Minerals Yearbook United Kingdom, USGS, January 2020
- How We Make Steel, British Steel, Retrieved on: May 13, 2020
- Company website
- Wikipedia page
- Grace's Guide to British Industrial History
- Industrial History of Scunthorpe - Les Wells, 2012
- 150 Years of Ironmaking in Scunthorpe - Scunthorpe Telegraph, 2014
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