South Stream Gas Pipeline

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

South Stream Gas Pipeline was a proposed natural gas pipeline.[1]


The pipeline would have run from Anapa through the Black Sea, Varna, Pleven, Zaječar, Paraćin, Gospođinci, Bački Breg, Hercegszántó, and Tornyiszentmiklós to Tarvisio, Italy and Baumgarten an der March, Austria.

Loading map...

Project Details

  • Operator: South Stream Transport B.V, Srbijagas, Gazprom, Bulgargaz, Hungarian Development Bank, Plinovodi
  • Owner: South Stream Transport B.V.
  • Parent Company: Gazprom [50%]; Eni [20%]; EDF [15%]; Wintershall [15%]
  • Current capacity:
  • Proposed capacity: 63 billion cubic meters per year
  • Length: 1,480 miles / 2,380 kilometers
  • Status: Cancelled[2]
  • Start Year:


South Stream is an abandoned pipeline project to transport natural gas from Russia through the Black Sea to Bulgaria and through Serbia, Hungary and Slovenia to Austria and Italy.

The project created controversy due to non-compliance with European Union competition and energy legislation, in particular the Third Energy Package, which stipulates the separation of companies' generation and sale operations from their transmission networks.[3]

It was seen as a rival to the Nabucco Gas Pipeline.[4] Construction of the Russian onshore facilities for the pipeline started in December 2012.[5] The project was cancelled by Russia in December 2014 following obstacles from Bulgaria and the EU, the 2014 Crimean crisis, and the imposition of European sanctions on Russia.[6][7][8] The project has been replaced by the proposed Turkish Stream Pipeline and Tesla Pipeline.[9]


The South Stream pipeline project was announced on 23 June 2007, when the Chief Executive Officer of the Italian energy company Eni Paolo Scaroni and the Vice-Chairman of Russian Gazprom Alexander Medvedev signed in Rome a memorandum of understanding for construction of the pipeline.[10] On 22 November 2007, Gazprom and Eni signed in Moscow an agreement on establishing a joint project company for the commissioning of the marketing and technical feasibility studies of the project.[11]

The preliminary agreement between Russia and Bulgaria on Bulgaria's participation in the project was signed on 18 January 2008. It was agreed to set up an equally owned company to build and operate the Bulgarian section of the pipeline.[12] The agreement was ratified by Bulgarian Parliament on 25 July 2008.[13] The first agreement between Russia and Serbia was signed even before the announcement of the South Stream project. On 20 December 2006, Gazprom and Serbian state-owned gas company Srbijagas agreed to conduct a study on building a gas pipeline running from Bulgaria to Serbia.[14] On 25 January 2008, Russia and Serbia signed an agreement to route a northern line of South Stream through Serbia and to create a joint company to build the Serbian section of the pipeline and a gas storage facility near Banatski Dvor.[15][16] On the same day, Russia and Hungary agreed to set up an equally owned joint company to build and operate the Hungarian section.[17][18] On 29 April 2008, Russia and Greece signed an intergovernmental agreement to cooperate on construction and operation of the Greek section.[19]

On 15 May 2009, in Sochi, in the presence of the Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin and the Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi, the gas companies of Russia, Italy, Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece signed an agreement for the construction of South Stream.[20][21] On 6 August 2009, the Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin and the Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan signed a protocol routing the pipeline through Turkish territorial waters.[22] On 14 November 2009, following talks between Slovenian Prime Minister Borut Pahor and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the agreement to run a part of the pipeline through Slovenia to Northern Italy was signed by Russian Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko and Slovenian Economy Minister Matej Lahovnik in Moscow.[23][24] As per the 2008 agreement between the two countries, on 17 November 2009, Russian Gazprom and Serbian Srbijagas created South Stream Serbia AG in Bern, Switzerland. The joint company was responsible for design, financing, construction and operation of the Serbia section.[25]

On 2 March 2010, Russian Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko and Croatian Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship Minister Djuro Popijac in the presence of the Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister of Croatia Jadranka Kosor signed an agreement on linking Croatia with South Stream.[26][27] On 19 June 2010, Gazprom, Eni, and Électricité de France published a joint press release confirming that EDF will join the project.[28] On 21 March 2011, Slovenia and Russia signed an agreement regarding the establishment of a joint venture South Stream Slovenia.[29]

The joint venture South Stream AG, equally owned by Gazprom and Eni, was registered on 18 January 2008 in Switzerland.[30] However, on 16 September 2011, a shareholders' agreement was signed between Gazprom, Eni, Électricité de France and Wintershall to establish the new project company South Stream Transport AG for the Black Sea section of the pipeline.[31] The company was incorporated on 3 October 2011 in Zug, Switzerland.

On December 28, 2011 Turkey issued its final agreement for allowing the pipeline to pass through its territorial waters.[32][33] The final investment decision for the Serbian section was signed on 29 October 2012, for the Hungarian section on 2 November 2012, for the Slovenian section on 13 November 2012, and for the Bulgarian section on 15 November 2012.[5][34][35][36] On 15 November 2012, shareholders of South Stream Transport AG signed the final investment decision on the offshore section.[5] The ground-breaking ceremony marking start of construction of the Russian onshore facilities was held on 7 December 2012 at the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa.[5][37][38]

On 25 July 2013, the Vice Premier of the Republic of Macedonia Zoran Stavreski signed an agreement on linking a section through Republic of Macedonia with South Stream.[39]

In March and April 2014, the contracts for laying the first and second lines of the offshore section were awarded to Saipem and Allseas.[40][41] Contracts for the third and fourth line were to be signed in December 2014 and January 2015.[42]

On 17 April 2014, amid Russia's annexation of Crimea, the European Parliament adopted a non-binding resolution opposing the South Stream gas pipeline and recommending a search for alternative sources of gas supplies for the European Union.[43] On 29 April 2014 a memorandum on the implementation of the Austrian section was signed in Moscow. The Austrian section was scheduled to be commissioned by January 2018.[44] In June 2014, Bulgaria temporarily stopped construction due to the European Commission infringement procedure against Bulgaria for non-compliance with European rules on energy competition public procurements.[45]

In April 2014 Russia filed a complaint at the World Trade Organization against the European Union's energy market laws that were enacted in 2009, claiming that they violate international rules. These laws ban suppliers from owning transit facilities such as gas pipelines, and would force Gazprom to allow third-party gas producers to use the South Stream pipeline.[46]

On 1 December 2014, during a state visit to Turkey, president Putin announced that Russia was withdrawing from the project, blaming international sanctions imposed after the Russian annexation of Crimea, opposition from the European Union (EU), and lack of construction permits in the EU.[6][47] Russia has started to build a pipeline through Turkey known as Turkish Stream.[48][49]


The pipeline was to consist of the Russian onshore pipeline, the Black Sea section, and pipelines in southeast Europe. The Russian onshore section would have run from the Pochinki compressor station to the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa.[38] The 931-km (578-mi) offshore section was to run from the Russkaya compressor station through the Black Sea to Galata near Varna, Bulgaria.[42] Because of the Russia–Ukraine gas disputes, the pipeline was to be routed through Turkey's waters to avoid the exclusive economic zone of Ukraine.[22][50][51] At the same time Russia's 2014 annexation of Crimea would have allowed a more direct route through Crimean waters.[52]

The 1455-km (904-mi) onshore section was to start from Varna and run to Pleven.[5][53] From there, the original southwestern route was to continue through Greece and the Ionian Sea to southern Italy.[53] However, this route was abandoned.[50] The newer northwestern route would have continued from Pleven to Serbia. In Serbia, the pipeline would run through Zaječar and Paraćin to Čenta. From Čenta the main pipeline would have continued in the direction of Gospođinci while a branch line would run to Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[5] Srbijagas planned to construct along Sava river a 480-km (298-mi) long branch pipeline with a capacity of 1.2 billion cubic meters (42 billion cubic feet) to Banja Luka and Sarajevo.[54] It was reported that Montenegro might also be connected to the pipeline.[55]

Before reaching Gospođinci, the main line was to split. One route would continue through Serbia and Hungary to Baumgarten an der March in Austria. Another route would have continued through Gospođinci and Bački Breg also to Hungary with a branch line to Croatia.[5] In Hungary it would have gone through Hercegszántó and Tornyiszentmiklós to Slovenia and further in direction of Tarvisio to supply northern Italy.[29][56][57][58]

Technical description

The feasibility study of the offshore section was conducted by Saipem, a subsidiary of Eni.[59][60] Planning was done by INTECSEA, a subsidiary of WorleyParsons. Giprospetsgas, an affiliate of Gazprom, has been appointed as a general design contractor.[61] The offshore section of the pipeline is designed to carry 63 billion cubic meters (2.2 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas per year.[4] It will have four parallel lines with capacity of 15.75 billion cubic meters (556 billion cubic feet) each.[5] The offshore pipeline will use pipes with a diameter of 810 mm (32 in), designed for 27.73 MPa (4,022 psi) of working pressure with pipe wall thickness of 39 mm (1.5 in).[62][63] The first line should be ready by the end of 2015, the second and third lines by the end of 2016, and the fourth line by the end of 2017. The offshore section is expected to cost €10 billion.[5][64]

Pipeline sections in Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, and Slovenia will have a capacity of at least 10 billion cubic meters (350 billion cubic feet) per year.[24] The onshore pipeline will have eight compressor stations and it is expected to cost €6 billion.[5][64]

At least two gas storage facilities would be constructed of which one would be an underground storage facility in Hungary with a minimum capacity of 1 billion cubic meters (30 billion cubic feet) and another one in Banatski Dvor, Serbia with capacity of 3.2 billion cubic meters (110 billion cubic feet).[65][66] Hungarian oil and gas company MOL Group has offered its empty natural gas field at Pusztaföldvár as a 9 billion cubic meter (320 billion cubic foot) storage facility.[67] British Melrose Resources is planning to convert the Galata offshore field in Bulgaria to a gas storage facility with initial capacity of 1.7 billion cubic meters (60 billion cubic feet) by 2009.[68]

Project companies

The pipeline will be built and operated by several project companies. For the construction and operation of the offshore section of South Stream originally two companies were established, both in Zug, Switzerland.[69][70][71] South Stream AG, a joint venture between Gazprom and Eni was incorporated on 18 January 2008, and South Stream Transport AG, a joint company of Gazprom, Eni, Électricité de France, and Wintershall was incorporated on 3 October 2011.[31][70][71] The head of South Stream Transport AG is Marcel Kramer, former chief executive officer of the gas transportation company Gasunie.[69][72] Executive director is Oleg Aksyutin.[42] Gazprom owns 50% of shares of South Stream Transport AG, Eni 20%, and Électricité de France and Wintershall 15% both.[31] In November 2012, it was decided to incorporate South Stream Transport B.V., the current project company, in Amsterdam.[73] Earlier Eni had registered in Amsterdam a company named South Stream BV, but in February 2012 it was renamed Eni JPDA 11-106 BV.[69][74]

The Bulgarian section of the pipeline will be built and operated by a joint venture of Gazprom and Bulgargaz and the Serbian section by the joint venture of Gazprom and Srbijagas.[16][75][76][77] The Hungarian section will be built and operated by the equally owned joint venture between Gazprom and the state-owned Hungarian Development Bank MFB, which will buy the elaborated feasibility study of Hungarian section from SEP Co., a joint venture of Gazprom and MOL.[65][78] The Slovenia section will be built and operated by an equally owned joint venture of Gazprom and Geoplin Plinovodi.[24] For construction of the Croatian section a 50-50 Russian-Croatian joint company will be established.[27]

Nabucco pipeline project

The South Stream project was seen as a rival to the Nabucco Gas Pipeline.[4] Some experts like Alan Riley from London City University were claiming that the South Stream pipeline is a political project to counter Nabucco and to expand Russian presence in the region.[79]

CEO of Eni Paolo Scaroni proposed to merge the Nabucco and South Stream projects to "reduce investments, operational costs and increase overall returns".[80][81] This proposal was rejected by energy minister of Russia Sergei Shmatko, who said that "South Stream is more competitive than Nabucco" and that "Nabucco and South Stream are far from being competitors".[82] Also OMV, a partner in both projects, has said that there were no ongoing discussions about merging the projects.[83]

Conflict with Ukraine

South Stream has been seen as diverting some gas transported through Ukraine, instead of providing a new source of gas for Europe.[79] To avoid Ukraine's exclusive economic zone, the pipeline was re-routed through Turkish waters.[22]

Offer to Romano Prodi

Before stepping down from the premiership, Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi received an offer from Gazprom to become the Chairman of South Stream AG. This move was compared with the appointment of the former Chancellor of Germany Gerhard Schröder to lead Nord Stream AG, a consortium operating the Nord Stream pipeline. Prodi has declined this offer.[84] According to the Prodi's spokesman "Prodi was extremely flattered, but reiterated that he wants to take some time off to ponder after leaving Italian politics."[85]

Stroytransgaz contract

In May 2014, it was disclosed that the contract for construction of the Bulgarian section was awarded to Stroytransgaz, a company controlled by Gennady Timchenko though his Volga Group. Earlier Timchenko was included in the international sanctions imposed in the wake of the annexation of Crimea by Russia due to his close ties with President Putin.[86]


  1. South Stream, Wikipedia, accessed April 2018
  2. "Turkey and Azerbaijan are the biggest winners in the highly contested competition to deliver Caspian gas to Europe". Geopolitical Intelligence Services. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
  3. "EU calls for South Stream suspension". Upstream Online. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Gazprom Agrees To Boost Pipeline Capacity". Downstream Today. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2009-05-15. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Rodova, Nadia (2012-11-15). "Russia, Bulgaria sign final investment decision on South Stream gas pipeline". Platts. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Putin:Russia Cannot Continue South Stream Construction in Current Situation". RIA Novosti. 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  7. Putin drops South Stream gas pipeline to EU, courts Turkey, Reuters, Darya Korsunskaya
  8. By Jim Yardley and Jo Becker (December 30, 2014). "How Putin Forged a Pipeline Deal That Derailed". The New York Times. The Times Company. Retrieved December 31, 2014. Mr. Putin, on a state visit to Turkey, announced that South Stream was dead
  9. Geropoulos, Kostis (2015-08-20). "Greece, Serbia, Hungary, FYROM to sign memorandum on the construction of the pipeline, which should connect the Turkish Stream pipeline with Austria". New Europe. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  10. "Eni and Gazprom sign gas pipeline accord for EU". Energy Publisher. 23 June 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
  11. "Eni and Gazprom sign the agreement for the South Stream Project". Scandinavian Oil-Gas Magazine. 2007-11-23. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  12. "Eni: Agreement Russia and Bulgaria on South Stream". AGI News. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
  13. "Bulgarian Parliament Ratifies South Stream Deal". Downstream Today. Dow Jones Newswires. 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
  14. {{cite news | newspaper = Upstream Online | publisher = NHST Media Group | url= | title= Serbia signs up for gas pipe study | date=2006-12-20 | accessdate=2008-02-26
  15. "Serbia signs strategic energy deal with Russia". Reuters. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Russia, Serbia Sign Gas Pipeline Deal". Downstream Today. Xinhua. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  17. Shchedrov, Oleg; Solovyov, Dmitry (2008-02-25). "Russia wins Hungary for South Stream gas project". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  18. "Hungary officially joins South Stream project". RIA Novosti. 2008-02-18. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
  19. "Russia, Greece Sign South Stream Deal". Downstream Today. Xinhua. 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
  20. Zhdannikov, Dmitry (2009-05-15). "Russia seeks to speed up South Stream with new deals". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  21. "South Stream Flows out of Sochi with New Pipes Cutting through Bulgaria". Standart. 2009-05-15. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Lyubov Pronina, Ali Berat Meric (6 August 2009). "Turkey Offers Route for Gazprom's South Stream Gas Pipeline". Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  23. Marja Novak (2009-11-09). "Slovenia to sign South Stream deal on Saturday". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Stephen Bierman, Anna Shiryaevskaya (2009-11-14). "Russia, Slovenia Sign South Stream Gas Pipe Accord". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  25. Gazprom (2009-11-17). "Gazprom and Srbijagas Create South Stream Serbia AG Joint Venture". Press release. Retrieved on 2009-11-18.
  26. Korsunskaya, Dasha; Soldatkin, Vladimir (2010-03-02). "Slovenia to sign South Stream deal on Saturday". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Anatoly Medetsky (2010-03-02). "Croatia Agrees to Join South Stream". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  28. Soldatkin, Vladimir (2010-06-19). "France's EDF to get South Stream stake from ENI". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Sporazum o Južnem toku je podpisan" [The agreement on South Stream has been signed] (in Slovenian). MMC RTV Slovenia. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  30. "Eni, Gazprom set up company for South Stream gas pipeline". Forbes. 2008-01-18. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Gronholt-Pedersen, Jacob (2011-09-16). "Companies Sign South Stream Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  32. Rozova, Anna (2011-12-28). Турция впустила "Южный поток" [Turkey allowed the South Stream in]. Kommersant (in Russian). Retrieved 2011-12-28.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  33. Akkan, Faruk (2012-01-29). "Turkey and Russia develop strategic alliance". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  34. Gazprom (2012-10-29). "Gazprom and Serbia sign final investment decision on South Stream". Press release. Retrieved on 2012-11-17.
  35. "Final investment decision approved for South Stream in Hungary". Europétrole. 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  36. "Final investment decision made for South Stream in Slovenia". Russia Behind The Headlines. Interfax. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  37. Assenova, Margarita (2012-11-16). "EU and US Policy on South Stream Remains Ambiguous". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  38. 38.0 38.1 "Gazprom starts work on South Stream". Upstream Online. 2012-12-07. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
  39. "Macedonia Shrugs Over Halt to South Stream Pipeline". Balkan Insight. BIRN. 2014-06-10. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  40. "Saipem clinches first-phase South Stream offshore pipelay". Offshore Magazine. Pennwell Corporation. 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  41. "South Stream returning to Austria". Pipeline International. 2014-05-08. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 "South Stream prepares deals for Black Sea lines". Upstream Online. 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  43. "MEPs Oppose South Stream, Seek Sanctions against Russian Energy Firms". Novinite. 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  44. "Gazprom lures Austria with South Stream branch". EurActiv. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  45. "Austria pleads for South Stream pipeline". EurActiv. 2014-06-24. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  46. "Russia challenges EU energy market rules". Yahoo News. Associated Press. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  47. "Russia drops South Stream gas pipeline plan". BBC News. 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  48. Reed, Stanley; Arsu, Sebnem (21 January 2015). "Russia Presses Ahead With Plan for Gas Pipeline to Turkey". New York Times. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  49. Sputnik. "Turkish Stream Pipeline Will Be Built on Time Despite US Sanctions - Minister". Retrieved 2017-09-02.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Socor, Vladimir (2009-02-12). "Gazprom Reveals Unaffordable Costs of South Stream Project". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
  51. "Russia seeks Turkey's permission for South Stream studies". Today's Zaman. 2009-02-11. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
  52. Broad, William J. (2014-05-17). "In taking Crimea, Putin gains a sea of fuel reserves". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Greece steps up for South Stream". Upstream Online. 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
  54. Sekularac, Ivana (2009-10-15). "Serbia's gas monopoly eyes pipeline in Bosnia". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
  55. "Montenegro Joins South Stream Gas Pipeline". Turkish Weekly. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  56. "OMV calls for South Stream through Austria". Upstream Online. 2008-04-17. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
  57. "Slovenia eyes South Stream berth". Upstream Online. 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
  58. "Gazprom: South Stream To Cross Slovenia". Downstream Today. Slovenian Press Agency. 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  59. Ilieva, Tsvetelia; Shchedrov, Oleg (2008-01-18). "Bulgaria signs up for Russian natural gas project". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
  60. "South Stream price tag hits $20bn". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  61. Mayants, Alex (2009). "Gazprom's South Stream project crossing the Black Sea" (PDF). INTECSEA Quarterly Journal. INTECSEA (Q3). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  62. "Gazprom says large diameter pipe purchases to rise 30 percent in 2011". LNG World News. 2011-09-22. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  63. OMK (2011-03-21). "VSW Produces a Qualification Batch of LDP for the South Stream Project". Press release. Retrieved on 2011-10-25.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Gazprom (2011-12-30). "Ukrainian gas transmission system may cost more than South Stream construction". Press release. | accessdate = 2012-02-20
  65. 65.0 65.1 "Ukraine Surfaced in South Stream Project". Kommersant. 29 February 2008. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  66. Socor, Vladimir (2008-01-09). "Gazprom set to pounce on Serbia as Putin moves into the Balkans". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  67. "MOL offers reserve for South Stream". Hungary Around the Clock. 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  68. "Melrose leaps on Bulgarian gas storage news". ShareCast. 25 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 "South Stream might move from Switzerland to Holland". Interfax. 2012-08-06. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  70. 70.0 70.1 "South Stream AG, Zug" (in German). itonex ag. Retrieved 2008-02-27.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  71. 71.0 71.1 "South Stream Transport AG, Zug" (in German). itonex ag. Retrieved 2012-02-20.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  72. Gazprom (2010-10-15). "Marcel Kramer: I am absolutely confident in South Stream's future". Press release. Retrieved on 2010-10-28.
  73. Gazprom (2012-11-15). "Final investment decision adopted for South Stream offshore section". Press release. Retrieved on 2012-11-17.
  74. Socor, Vladimir (2012-08-15). "Moscow Can Use West-European Partners in South Stream Project". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Vol. 9, no. 156. Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  75. "South Stream project gets new momentum in Bulgaria". The Southeast European Times. 2010-10-18. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
  76. Shchedrov, Oleg; Tzortzi, Ellie (2008-02-25). "Russia and Serbia firm up gas pipeline deal". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  77. MacDonald, Neil (2008-02-25). "Medvedev shows support for Serbia". Financial Times. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  78. "Budapest does South Stream sums". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
  79. 79.0 79.1 "Energy security: South Stream vs. Nabucco gas pipelines". The Southeast European Times. 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  80. "ENI calls for South Stream, Nabucco links". United Press International. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  81. Martinez, Andres R.; Resnick-Ault, Jessica (2010-03-10). "Europe Needs to Push Gas Infrastructure Spending, Scaroni Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  82. Shiryaevskaya, Anna (2010-03-15). "Russia Rejects Eni Call to Merge Europe Gas Pipelines". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  83. Grove, Thomas (2010-03-18). "OMV says no ongoing talks to merge rival pipelines". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  84. Dempsey, Judy (2008-04-28). "Gazprom courts Prodi as pipeline chief". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
  85. Di Leo, Luca; Moloney, Liam (2008-04-28). "Outgoing Italian Premier Turns Down Top Job for South Stream". Downstream Today. Dow Jones Newswires]. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
  86. "Sanctioned Russian Tycoon Wins Bulgaria's South Stream Bid". Novinite. 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-06-24.

Related articles

External resources

External articles

Wikipedia also has an article on South Stream (South Stream). This article may use content from the Wikipedia article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License].