Trans-Anatolian Gas Pipeline

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Trans-Anatolian Gas Pipeline is an operating natural gas pipeline.[1]


The pipeline runs from the Georgia/Turkey border to the Ipsala district of Edirne province along the Turkish-Greek border.[2][3]

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Project Details

  • Operator: SOCAR
  • Parent Company: SOCAR 58%; BOTAŞ 30%; BP 12%
  • Current capacity: 16 billion cubic meters per year[4][5]
    • Proposed capacity (Phase Two): 24 billion cubic meters per year (increase of 8 bcm/y)
    • Proposed capacity (Phase Three): 31 billion cubic meters per year (increase of 7 bcm/y)
  • Length: 1,144 miles / 1,841 kilometers
  • Status: Operating
  • Start Year: 2018


The Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP; Trans-Anadolu Doğalgaz Boru Hattı) is a natural gas pipeline from Azerbaijan through Georgia and Turkey to Europe. It will be a central part of the Southern Gas Corridor, which will connect the giant Shah Deniz gas field in Azerbaijan to Europe through the South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP), TANAP and the Trans-Adriatic Gas Pipeline (TAP).

This project is of strategic importance for both Azerbaijan and Turkey. It will allow the first Azerbaijani gas exports to Europe, beyond Turkey. It will also strengthen the role of Turkey as a regional energy hub.

Construction of the pipeline began in March 2015 and was expected to be completed in 2018.[6][7]

The project was announced on 17 November 2011 at the Third Black Sea Energy and Economic Forum in Istanbul.[8] On 26 December 2011, Turkey and Azerbaijan signed a memorandum of understanding establishing a consortium to build and operate the pipeline.[9]

In spring 2012, the process of conducting the technical-economic feasibility study was launched.[10] On 26 June 2012, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and then Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan signed a binding intergovernmental agreement on the pipeline.[11][12] Also, the agreement was signed by Azerbaijani Industry and Energy Minister Natig Aliyev and Turkish Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yildiz. The initial agreement on organizational issues between BOTAŞ and SOCAR was signed by Natig Aliyev and Taner Yildiz, SOCAR President Rovnag Abdullayev and BOTAŞ Deputy Director General Mehmet Konuk. The Host Country Agreement was signed by Taner Yildiz and SOCAR President Rovnag Abdullayev on behalf of TANAP between the Turkish Government and the TANAP Company.[13][14] On March 17, 2015, both Erdogan and Aliyev met with Giorgi Margvelashvili, President of Georgia, in the city of Kars in Eastern Turkey to formally lay the foundations for the pipeline and marking the work as started.[7]

In June 2018 the pipeline was commissioned.[15]

In 2019, the pipeline entered "Phase One", the second of four phases. As of 2020, it was expected to reach "Phase Two" by 2023 and "Phase Three" by 2026.


TANAP X (Phase Two)

According to the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas, TANAP X is an expansion project intending to increase TANAP's capacity by 9 billion cubic meters per year. The project is expected to begin construction in 2023 and be completed by 2025. It is referred to as TRA-A-782.[16]

"TANAP X" mirrors what TANAP calls "Phase Two" of development. According to the company, Phase Two is aimed at increasing the pipelines capacity by 8 bcm/year (from 16 bcm/year to 24 bcm/year) by upgrading compressor stations in operation from Phase One, and adding two additional compressor stations. As of December 2020, Phase Two's capacity increase was expected to be completed by 2023.[4]

Phase Three

According to a 2020 report, Phase Three of the project is aimed at adding an additional 7 billion cubic meters of capacity per year meeting a throughput of 31 billion cubic meters per year by 2026. Doing so by upgrading the Phase one and Phase two compressor stations and adding three additional compressor stations.[4]


The pipeline is expected to cost US$10–11 billion. $800 million of funding has been approved by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development for TANAP. Overall, TANAP will receive around $3.7 billion in loans.[17]

Initial plans stated that the capacity of the pipeline would be 16 billion cubic meters (570 billion cubic feet) of natural gas per year in the initial stage and then would be increased later up to 23 billion cubic meters (810 billion cubic feet) by 2023, 31 billion cubic meters (1.1 trillion cubic feet) by 2026, and at the final stage 60 billion cubic meters (2.1 trillion cubic feet) to be able to transport additional gas supplies from Azerbaijan and, if the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline is built, from Turkmenistan.[12][18][19] Its capacity would be increased by adding parallel loops and compressor stations according to the increase of available supplies.[19]The maximum height of the pipeline is 2,700 meters above mean sea level.[20]

The project development is scheduled in phour phases. According to the 2020 "TANAP Project 6th Independent Environmental and Social Monitoring Visit Report", the phases are as follows:[4]

  • Phase 0 -  Initial phase of operation, 6 bcma capacity of Shah Deniz 2 by mid 2018 will be delivered to BOTAS through the 56” pipeline section through the Eskisehir Off-take. No gas will be delivered to Thrace or Greece. Mechanical completion of Phase 0 was completed in Q4 2017. The Phase 0 facilities have been operational since mid-2018.
  • Phase 1 - To meet the throughput of 16 bcma, sized to transport the production capacity of Shah Deniz 2 by 2019 to BOTAS and TAP, the operation of 48” section of the onshore pipeline and the two compressor stations (CS-1 and CS5) is required. The Phase 1 facilities are operational since mid-2019.
  • Phase 2 - To meet the throughput of 24bcma by 2023, upgrading of the Phase 1 compressor stations is required and an additional 2 compressor stations are needed to meet 24 bcma flow requirements.
  • Phase 3 -  To meet throughput of 31 bcma by 2026, upgrading of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 compressor stations is required and an additional 3 compressor stations are needed to meet 31 bcma requirements.


The TANAP pipeline passes through 20 provinces of Turkey - Ardahan, Kars, Erzurum, Erzincan, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Giresun, Sivas, Yozgat, Kırşehir, Kırıkkale, Ankara, Eskişehir, Bilecik, Kütahya, Bursa, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Tekirdağ and Edirne. The pipeline starts at the Sangachal terminal in Azerbaijan and is an expansion of the existing South Caucasus Pipeline (SCPx). From Erzurum continues to Eskishehir where it will unload 6 bcm of gas entitled to Turkish buyers. From the Turkey-Greece border connects with the proposed Trans Adriatic pipeline.[21][22] The Turkish government said in March 2015 that a branch from Greece through North Macedonia and Serbia to Hungary was also under consideration.[23]


The TANAP will be operated by SOCAR, which currently holds a 58% stake in the project. Turkey's pipeline operator BOTAŞ own 30%, while BP acquired 12% of the project on March 13, 2015 .[24] The TANAP project company will be headquartered in the Netherlands.[12]

Initially, Azerbaijan had held an 80% stake, with Turkey owning the remainder. The Turkish stake was divided between the Turkish upstream company Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı (TPAO) (15%) and the Turkish pipeline operator BOTAŞ (5%). The international companies from the Shah Deniz consortium (BP, Statoil and Total) had an option to take up to 29% in TANAP. However, only BP exercised this option in December 2013.[25] The Turkish government decided then that only BOTAŞ will hold a stake (20%) in TANAP. The Turkish pipeline operator acquired an additional 10% in May 2014. SOCAR's initial plan was to retain 51% and operatorship of the project. Several private Turkish companies had been interested in the remaining 7%, but this did not materialize.


  • Bechtel - Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
  • WorleyParsons - Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management (EPCM)[26]
  • ABB - SCADA/Telecommunications System Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Works [27]
  • Yüksel inşaat - Construction, installation, personnel training, and testing [28]
  • Fernas Construction Company
  • Akkord
  • Tekfen
  • SICIM - a construction company established in 1962 that offers all types of services related to the installation of pipelines and relevant ancillary facilities for the transmission and distribution of oil, gas and water on an international basis
  • Punj Lloyd
  • Limak

Articles and resources


  1. Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline, Wikipedia, accessed April 2018
  2. "Pipe down: Gas companies' control over billions in EU subsidies". Global Witness. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  3. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (October 2020). "TYNDP 2020 - MAP – Transmission" (PDF). ENTSOG. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 TANAP (December 11, 2020). "IESC Remote Monitoring Report December 2020" (PDF). TANAP. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  5. TANAP. "TANAP Information Note" (PDF). Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Turkey, Azerbaijan to start work on new mega gas pipeline". Hürriyet Daily News. 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-03-17.
  8. Demirmen, Ferruh (2011-12-19). "BP-SOCAR duo deliver 'coup de grace' to Nabucco". Retrieved 2011-12-25.
  9. "Azerbaycan'la tarihi anlaşma". Sabah (in Türkçe). Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  10. Socor, Vladimir (2012-04-04). "Interest Growing All-Round in Trans-Anatolia Pipeline Project". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 9 (70). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
  11. "Turkey, Azerbaijan sign gas pipeline deal". Bloomberg Businessweek. Associated Press. 2012-06-26. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Socor, Vladimir (2012-06-27). "Aliyev, Erdogan Sign Inter-Governmental Agreement on Trans-Anatolia Gas Pipeline to Europe". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 9 (122). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  15. Leaders open TANAP pipeline carrying gas from Azerbaijan to Europe, Hurriyet Daily News, Jun. 12, 2018
  16. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (October 2019). "TYNDP 2020 Annex A.1 – Project Details" (PDF). ENTSOG. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  17. "$2.5 billion in external finance secured for TANAP". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 2017-10-04.
  18. Blank, Stephen (2012-05-04). "Russia Again Seeks to Quash the Trans-Caspian Pipeline". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 9 (85). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Socor, Vladimir (2012-09-11). "Azerbaijan Drives the Planning on Trans-Anatolia Gas Pipeline Project". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 9 (164). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  20. JIS. "Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) | Socar Midstream". Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  21. Socor, Vladimir (15 January 2014). "SCP, TANAP, TAP: Segments of the Southern Gas Corridor to Europe". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 11 (8). Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  22. "One sure winner emerges in southern gas corridor race". Euractiv. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
  23. "BP becomes a partner in the Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline". Daily Sabah. 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2015-03-17.
  24. "BP acquires 12 percent stake in TANAP pipeline project". Hürriyet Daily News. 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2015-03-17.
  25. BOTAS, BP Pipelines intend to become TANAP shareholders,, 17 December 2014, retrieved on 19 January 2015
  28. "TANAP - Trans Anadolu Doğal Gaz Boru Hattı, Lot 2". Retrieved 2018-02-22.

Related articles

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External resources

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