Vinh Tan power station

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Vinh Tan power station is an operating power station of at least 4244-megawatts (MW) in Vinh Tan, Tuy Phong, Binh Thuan, Vietnam with multiple units, some of which are not currently operating. It is also known as Vinh Tan-4 extension (Phase 4 extension).


Table 1: Project-level location details

Plant name Location Coordinates (WGS 84)
Vinh Tan power station Vinh Tan, Tuy Phong, Binh Thuan, Vietnam 11.317, 108.808 (exact)

The map below shows the exact location of the power station.

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Unit-level coordinates (WGS 84):

  • Phase 1 Unit 1, Phase 1 Unit 2, Phase 2 Unit 1, Phase 2 Unit 2, Phase 3 Unit 1, Phase 3 Unit 2, Phase 3 Unit 3, Phase 4 Unit 1, Phase 4 Unit 2, Phase 4 extension: 11.317, 108.808

Project Details

Table 2: Unit-level details

Unit name Status Fuel(s) Capacity (MW) Technology Start year Retired year
Phase 1 Unit 1 operating coal - anthracite 600 subcritical 2018
Phase 1 Unit 2 operating coal - anthracite 600 subcritical 2019
Phase 2 Unit 1 operating coal - anthracite 622 supercritical 2014
Phase 2 Unit 2 operating coal - anthracite 622 supercritical 2014
Phase 3 Unit 1 shelved coal - bituminous 660 supercritical 2025
Phase 3 Unit 2 shelved coal - bituminous 660 supercritical 2025
Phase 3 Unit 3 shelved coal - bituminous 660 supercritical 2026
Phase 4 Unit 1 operating coal - bituminous 600 supercritical 2017
Phase 4 Unit 2 operating coal - bituminous 600 supercritical 2018
Phase 4 extension operating coal - unknown 600 ultra-supercritical 2019

Table 3: Unit-level ownership and operator details

Unit name Owner
Phase 1 Unit 1 Vietnam National Coal and Mineral Industries Holding Corp Ltd (Vinacomin), China Southern Power Grid Co Ltd
Phase 1 Unit 2 Vietnam National Coal and Mineral Industries Holding Corp Ltd (Vinacomin), China Southern Power Grid Co Ltd
Phase 2 Unit 1 EVNGENCO 3 Co [100.0%]
Phase 2 Unit 2 EVNGENCO 3 Co [100.0%]
Phase 3 Unit 1 Vinh Tan 3 Energy JSC [100.0%]
Phase 3 Unit 2 Vinh Tan 3 Energy JSC [100.0%]
Phase 3 Unit 3 Vinh Tan 3 Energy JSC [100.0%]
Phase 4 Unit 1 Vietnam Electricity LLC (EVN) [100.0%]
Phase 4 Unit 2 Vietnam Electricity LLC (EVN) [100.0%]
Phase 4 extension Vietnam Electricity LLC (EVN) [100.0%]


The Vĩnh Tân power station complex is made up of four separate plants.

Vĩnh Tân-1

In July 2007, a consortium of Vinacomin and China Southern Power Grid Company sought financing from the Asian Development Bank to build the two-unit, 1,200-MW Vĩnh Tân-1. Vinacomin signed a deal with two Indonesian coal mining companies in July 2008.[1]

In December 2012, the consortium — now also joined by the China Power Investment Corporation — finally signed an deal with the Vietnamese government for the plant's construction; the plant is scheduled to come online in 2018.[2][3] The two Chinese firms are providing 95% of the $1.6-$1.7 billion in capital for the plant's construction.[4] The three companies signed a construction contract in March 2014; the two Chinese companies are apparently going to serve as the construction contractors.[5]

At the end of 2014, financial close was reached for Vĩnh Tân-1. The overall debt package involves a loan of US$1.404 billion provided in equal tranches by Bank of China, China Construction Bank, China Development Bank Corporation, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited, Sinosure and the Export-Import Bank of China. US$350.94 million in equity was provided by State Power Investment Corporation, China Southern Power Grid, and Vinacomin.[6]

Construction began on Vĩnh Tân-1 in July 2015. Unit 1 is scheduled to be completed in late 2018, and Unit 2 in early 2019.[7] As of August 2016, construction was 23% complete.[8]

In November 2017, the plant operators told the government that the plant would be completed 11 months ahead of schedule, with Unit 1 going into operation in 2018 and Unit in 2019.[9]

In April 2018, unit 1 was connected to the grid and undergoing testing.[10] Unit 1 was commissioned on June 5, 2018.[11] Unit 2 was commissioned according to one report in November 2018.[12] GreenID reports that Unit 2 was commissioned in 2018.[13]

As of August 2023, Vĩnh Tân-1 reportedly supplied 3% of Vietnam's total electricity needs.[14]

Vĩnh Tân-2

In October 2009, Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) signed a construction contract with Shanghai Electric Group for the construction of the two-unit, 1,245-MW, $1.3 billion Vĩnh Tân-2.[15] Construction work began in August 2010.[16]

The first unit of the plant came online in January 2014, and the second in September 2014.[17][18][19]

In December 2010, China Exim Bank agreed to provide a US$300 million loan to Vĩnh Tân-2, and EVN agreed to provide US$180 million in equity.[20]

In February 2012 and January 2013,[21] EVN received a total of $360.58 million in loans from the Vietnam Development Bank for two projects, one of which is Vinh Tan-2. However, it's impossible to determine what amount went specifically to Vinh Tan-2.[22]

Vĩnh Tân-3

In October 2008, OneEnergy, a partnership of China's CLP Group and Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation, announced that it would be partnering with Electricity of Vietnam to build the three-unit, 1,980-MW, $1.1 billion Vĩnh Tân-3, planning on beginning construction in 2010.[23] The project is being created by the Vinh Tan 3 Energy Joint Stock Company (VTEC), which is owned by OneEnergy Ventures Limited (a subsidiary of CLP Holdings), EVN, and Pacific Group Corporation.[24]

In October 2013, the consortium signed a construction agreement with the Harbin Power Equipment Company; construction would begin in 2014, and the plant would go online in 2018.[25] As of April 2015, the project's sponsors had reportedly still not yet reached final agreement with the Ministry of Industry & Trade on several issues.[26] In October 2015, the China Development Bank reached an MoU with CLP Holdings' Vinh Tan 3 Energy Joint Stock Company on investment and financial arrangements for the Build-Operate-Transfer thermal power plant project Vinh Tan 3.[27] Commercial operation of the first unit is planned for 2020.[28]

In 2017, a financing agreement for the plant was announced. China Development Bank, Bank of Communications, ICBC, China Construction Bank, and Bank of China would provide US$2 billion in loans for the project. However, as of August 2021, the financing agreement still had not been finalized.[29][30] IJGlobal also reports that China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation (Sinosure) may be involved with financing.[31]

According to a July 2017, report, as part of a larger restructuring of the company, EVN plans to divest ownership of Vinh Tan-3 after the project is completed.[32]

In June 2019, the completion date for Unit 1 was delayed to 2024 and the completion date for Units 2-3 was delayed to 2025 in the Ministry Of Industry And Trade's report on the implementation of the revised seventh Power Development Plan (PDP7).[33]

In December 2019, CLP announced that it would no longer invest in new coal-fired power plants.[34] Whether Vĩnh Tân-3 and another CLP project Vũng Áng-2 will reach completion without CLP’s involvement will depend on the projects’ other sponsors, according to Julien Vincent, Executive Director of the NGO Market Forces. These other sponsors include Japanese bank Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group (MUFG) and Singapore-headquartered DBS Bank.[35] Mitsubishi has categorized Vĩnh Tân-3 as "under development" and stated that its ban on funding new plants does not therefore apply.[36] In January 2020 HSBC announced that it had withdrawn as a financial advisor to the project, a capacity in which it had served since 2014.[37] In February 2020 the National Steering Committee on power development stated that Unit 1 was scheduled to be commissioned in Q2 2024, Unit 2 in Q4 2024, and Unit 3 in Q3 2025.[38] According to GreenID the commissioning date for Units 1-2 is 2025, and for Unit 3 is 2026.[39]

In November 2020, a report by the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA) argued that Vietnam’s Law on Public-Private Partnership raises doubts about several proposed coal plants if they do not conclude project negotiations by the end of 2020. The law, which comes into effect in 2021, reins in generous concessions on government guarantees and favorable provisions for investors in build-operate-transfer contracts.[40]

In February 2021 Mitsubishi announced that it was withdrawing from Vinh Tan-3, the first time Mitsubishi has withdrawn from a coal plant project. Mitsubishi cited its climate targets as the main reason for withdrawing from the project.[41] In March 2022, Report No. 1562 by the Office of the Government of Vietnam stated that the plant was financially troubled.[42]

On July 4, 2022, the Ministry of Industry and Trade appeared to provide an update on the draft PDP. The document’s list of major power projects planned for 2021-2030 (PDF pages 18-20) includes the project. At that time, contracts were under negotiation and a target completion date was unknown.[43]

In September 2022, Vĩnh Tân-3 was included on a list of troubled coal projects in Vietnam. The project remained in the preparation stage and was struggling with the mobilization of foreign capital.[44]

In April 2023, the local government was reportedly looking to move forward in developing Vĩnh Tân-3 without the use of coal.[45]

Vĩnh Tân-4 and Vĩnh Tân-4 mở rộng (Vĩnh Tân-4 Extension)

In December 2013, Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) signed a construction agreement with the Mitsubishi Corporation and Doosan Heavy Industries (a subsidiary of the Doosan Group) to build the two-unit, 1,200-MW, $1.4 billion Vĩnh Tân-4. Construction is slated to begin in early 2014, and the plant would come online in 2017-18.[46][47][48]

Construction began in March 2014, with Unit 1 scheduled to go online in 2017 and Unit 2 in 2018. The project is financed by both Korea Export-Import Bank and Japan Bank of International Cooperation.[49] Toshiba Corporation won the contract to provide the plant's turbines and generators in July 2014.[50] Construction was 30% complete as of June 2015.[51] As of July 2016, completion of Unit 1 was scheduled for Q4 2017, and Unit 2 for Q2 2018.[52]

In March 2014, a financing agreement for the project was closed. US$1,240 in loans was provided by MUFG Bank, HSBC, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, DBS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Societe Generale, and Export-Import Bank of Korea.[53]

In July 2014, the project received a US$202 million loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation.[54]

In September 2017, the project received a US$300 million loan from the Export-Import Bank of Korea and a US$341 million loan from Korea Trade Insurance Corporation.[55]

In March 2017, with construction still ongoing, welders working near the flue-gas desulphurization system accidentally ignited insulation, causing a large fire that injured two workers and damaged the plant.[56][57] A June 2017 EVN press release seemed to indicate that, despite the fire, construction continued to be on track to be completed according to schedule.[58]

As of July 2017, commercial operations were expected for Unit 1 in December 2017, for Unit 2 in June 2018, and for the Extension in April 2019.[59]

Unit 1 was completed on December 26, 2017.[60] Unit 2 was operating and online as of October 2018.[61]

The Revised Power Development Plan VII lists a 600 MW extension unit for Vinh Tan-4, scheduled for 2019.[62] A ground-breaking ceremony on the new unit was held in April 2016.[63] The unit is being built by EVN, with Doosan and Mitsubishi Corporation serving as construction contractors.[64] Generators and turbines are being built by Toshiba.[65] In April 2019, it was reported that construction was 97.6% complete and that the plant was scheduled to be commissioned in December 2019.[66] In April 2019, the plant conducted successful test operations and is scheduled to be commissioned in October 2019.[67] GreenID reported that Vĩnh Tân-4 Extension was operating as of September 2019.[68]

In January 2014, a financing agreement for the project was closed. A US$455 million loan was provided by the Export-Import Bank of Korea, and a US$455 million loan was provided by the Korea Trade Insurance Corp.[55]

In April 2017, the project received a US$50 million loan from JBIC[54] and a US$33.8 million loan from the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ.[69]

In March 2022, despite years of concerns and protests over the power station's environmental impacts, the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, and the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Construction reviewed Vĩnh Tân-4 as "green, clean, beautiful and dust-free".[70]

Environmental Issues and Protests

In mid-April 2015, thousands of local residents blocked the National Highway No 1A in protest against coal dust pollution from the plant. Initial media reports in English gave few details of the cause of the dust pollution. However, in a statement EVN said that it would cease dumping any coal dust for the next 10 days while discussions are held with local residents.[71] A later report stated that on the afternoon of April 14 thousands of residents blocked the highway "to protest the plant after strong winds blew an unusually large amount of coal dust into the neighborhood that day." On the first night of the protests, a police riot squad tried to remove what had been a peaceful protest. Police fired tear gas canisters into the protestors, and some in the crowd threw rocks and petrol bombs at the police. Dozens of protesters were injured.[72]The protest ran for 30 hours and the highway was not cleared until 9 a.m. on April 16.[73]

In December 2016, a trial of 12 people began in connection with the disturbances, and the group was sentenced to between six and nine months in jail. Of those sentenced, the sentences of five people were suspended.[74]

It was reported that since the commissioning of the second unit in September last year the plant has been generating 1500 tonnes of coal ash (referred to in the article as 'slag') a day, with the transport of the waste by truck from the plant to the landfill resulting in air pollution along the way. Between the dust pollution and air pollution from the plant, residents complained of the health impacts, especially on children. The Vietnam Environment Administration fining the plant operator VND1.5 billion (US$69,510) in December 2014 for environmental violations. However, pollution problems remained. Following the protest, the company has changed the routing of the trucks, wet the loads before transport and said it would investigate using the coal ash wastes in cement.[73]

Asiaone reported that EVN had "covered its 6,000sq.m cinder dumping ground with canvas and watered it, fully covered all its trucks carrying cinder, and began to clean the roads regularly pending construction of dedicated roads for the trucks. It had improved water supply in the dumping area and poured water on the cinder to prevent it from flying and made sure all necessary equipment to limit pollution was in working order." Asiaone reported that Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung Hai "stressed that the Government constantly reminded all thermal power producers to limit pollution, and criticised Vinh Tan Thermal Plant No 2 for ignoring all such instructions." Hai was reported as stating that all the coal ash should be used in cement instead of being dumped. "If we can manage to collect cinder for cement production, it will both bring financial benefit and resolve the pollution problem," he said.[75]

In January 2016, local officials complained that ash and coal dust from the plant are blowing into their communities.[76] In late 2016, the news media published concerns about plans for Vĩnh Tân-1 to dredge a navigable channel for barges transporting waste, with local fishery management officials arguing that the dredging and dumping of dredged soil could harm corals and other marine life in the area.[77]

In June 2017, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment approved the dumping of a million cubic meters of mud and sand removed to deepen the dock area of the plant. Marine scientists expressed concerns over the effect of the sludge on marine ecosystems. According to the scientists, the government's assurance that the sludge would not contain toxins or radioactive materials was beside the point, since the real hazard from dumping such large amounts of sludge would be the the muddying of large areas of ocean and the effect of that muddying on photosynthesis in areas populated by 1 million organisms per square meter. Of particular concern was the 12,500 hectacre Hon Cau Marine Reserve, a spawning ground for shrimp, fish, and sea turtles, and home to 34 rare and endangered species.[78]

In July 2017, after reports that the names of three scientists had been "impersonated" on the environmental evaluation for the sludge dumping, the Vietnam Fisheries Association submitted a written request for the dumping permit to be suspended.[79]

In August 2017, The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment cancelled the dumping and instead came to an agreement with the Binh Thuan People's Committee to use the sludge as fill to prevent coastal erosion in another local harbor. The decision followed the submittal of thousands of names on a protest petition and an attempted march from Ho Chi Minh City to the plant site by concerned citizens.[80]

In 2017, protests and a petition with thousands of signatures by Vietnamese citizens, environmentalists, and fishermen argued against the pollution incidents caused by coal plants in Vinh Tan. The petition was sent to 11 senior Vietnamese officials, such as the Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc.[81]

In July 2017, EVN GENCO submitted a request for an even larger 2.4-million-cubic-meter dumping of sludge into the sea, raising further concerns of environmental impacts.[82]

On December 15, 2017, Deputy Prime Minister Trinh Dinh Dung visited Vinh Tan port and expressed concern over the effect of the sludge dumping on the Hon Cau Marine Reserve and the Vinh Tan shrimp breeding grounds, which play a major role in Vietnam's fishing industry. The Deputy Prime Minister called for the creation of a new joint management board to better control the project.[83]

In June 2018, faced with ongoing opposition to the plant by local residents, EVN proposed to the Government and the Ministry of Public Security to bring Vinh Tan Thermal Power Center into special security protection.[84]

In March 2019, Vietnam’s State Audit Agency found that the 1200 MW Vinh Tan 1 plant had violated environmental laws. Violations included discharging cooling water into the sea without approval from the Environment Ministry, poor monitoring of wastewater, and nitrogen oxide emissions in excess of permit limits. It also found that the plant had limited coal ash storage capacity. The audit also criticised the Binh Thuan provincial government and the ministries of environment, industry and trade for inadequate supervision of the project and lack of proper assessment of environmental impacts.[85]

In May 2019, environmentalist groups, such as Unfriend Coal, released a report around how Talanx needs to stop investing and insuring coal plants, including the Vinh Tan power plant. They reported that respiratory illnesses have resulted from the Vinh Tan 2 power station, and that an expansion of the Vinh Tan coal stations would exacerbate these health issues.[86]

In December 2019, environmentalist groups called upon Japanese private sector banks and public financial institutions, like the Mitsubishi Corporation, to withdraw funds from the Vinh Tan coal plant.[87]

The “No Coal, Go Green! Project” released a report in March 2020, highlighting why the Mitsubishi Company that is powering the Vinh Tan plant should stop investing. Specific reasons include carbon emissions and lack of financial gains.[88]

A report in April of 2021 states that the situation with both noise pollution and dust pollution had improved in the prior few years, but residents still complained about numerous instances of environmental harm caused by the Vinh Tan power station. Increased treatment of coal ash from Vinh Tan 2 and 4 has led to less dispersal to surrounding areas, but coal ash from Vinh Tan 1 is still frequently picked up and blown into the surrounding areas. One resident stated that "when the wind is still, black dust appears, and when the wind is high, fine white dust appears." Residents have reported other ecological impacts as well, including major reductions in shrimp and fish populations, disappearance of coral reefs, and drastic decreases in crop productivity.[89]

Just Energy Transition Partnership

In December 2022, Vietnam and a coalition of countries led by the European Union and the UK concluded a Just Energy Transition Partnership agreement with US$15.5 billion to fund the development and implementation of a plan to cap and then phase out unabated coal generation. The agreement proposed reducing Vietnam’s coal fleet capacity from 37 GW to 30.2 GW by 2030 and a path to “phasing out unabated coal-fired power generation after those dates.” As of January 2023, the Global Coal Plant Tracker estimated Vietnam had 24.7 GW in coal capacity, with a further 6.1 GW under construction. The deal noted a detailed plan would be finalized by November 2023 to guide the long-term transition plan.[90][91][92] The pre-permit development Vĩnh Tân-3 project was presumed shelved, but must be monitored for potential new developments.


Vĩnh Tân-1: US$1,404 million in debt from Export-Import Bank of China, China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation (Sinosure), China Development Bank, Bank of China, China Construction Bank and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China; US$350.94 million in equity from State Power Investment Corporation (SPIC), China Southern Power Grid, and Vinacomin - Vietnam National Coal and Mineral Industries Group;[6]

Vĩnh Tân-2: US$300 million in debt from China Exim Bank; US$180 million in equity from EVN;[20] $360.58 million in debt from the Vietnam Development Bank for both Vĩnh Tân-2 and Duyen Hai 1;[22]

Vĩnh Tân-3: US$2 billion in debt from China Development Bank, Bank of Communications, ICBC, China Construction Bank, and Bank of China (proposed);[29]

Vĩnh Tân-4: US$1,240 million in debt from MUFG Bank, HSBC, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, DBS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Societe Generale, and Export-Import Bank of Korea;[53] US$300 million in debt from Export-Import Bank of Korea; US$341 million in debt from Korea Trade Insurance Corporation;[55] US$202 million in debt from Japan Bank for International Cooperation;[54]

Vĩnh Tân-4 extension: US$455 million in debt from the Export-Import Bank of Korea; US$455 million in debt from the Korea Trade Insurance Corp;[55] US$33.8 million in debt from Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ[69] and US$50 million in debt from JBIC[54]

Articles and Resources


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Additional data

To access additional data, including an interactive map of coal-fired power stations, a downloadable dataset, and summary data, please visit the Global Coal Plant Tracker on the Global Energy Monitor website.