Yamal-Europe Gas Pipeline
|This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.|
Yamal-Europe Gas Pipeline (Russian: Газопровод Ямал — Европа) transports gas from the Yamal peninsula to European consumers and travels across Russia, Belarus, Poland and Germany.
The pipeline carries gas from Torzhok to Smolensk in Russia through Minsk, Belarus and Poland and into eastern Germany, where it connects with the Western European gas grid at Frankfurt an Der Oder.
- Operator: Gazprom, EuRoPol Gaz, Gascade Gastransport GmbH
- Operator: Gazprom, EuRoPol Gaz, Gascade Gastransport GmbH
- Operator: Gazprom, PGNiG, BASF
- Current capacity: 33 billion cubic meters per year
- Length: 1,660 km / 1,031.48 miles
- Diameter: 1400 mm
- Status: Operating
- Start Year: 2006
Belarus, Poland, and Russia signed intergovernmental agreements on the Yamal-Europe Pipeline in 1993, and the following year a Gazprom-Wintershall joint venture began building the German segment. First-stage gas transmission began in 1997, and the segments through Belarus and Poland were finished in 1999. Since 2005, when construction of all compressor stations was accomplished, the pipeline reached the final-stage capacity of 33 bcm/y. Plans to build a second 33 bcm/y pipeline, Yamal–Europe Two, through Belarus onward to Europe had been discussed, but Poland and Russia disagreed over the route. Poland wanted it to go through southeast Poland, to Slovakia and Central Europe. Those plans were indefinitely shelved in 2007 in favor of constructing the Nord Stream pipeline under the Baltic Sea from Russia to Germany.
Gazprom and the Belarusian state company Beltransgaz have been in conflict over the amount of Belarus’ debt for gas purchases, as since 2006 Russia has sought to raise its price to reflect market/global prices. Belarus’ President Aleksandr Lukashenka insisted that his country’s participation in building a customs union with Russia and other former Soviet republics entitled it to a recalculation of gas import prices from Russia. Ultimately, Gazprom gained half-ownership of Beltransgaz in partial payment of the accumulating debt. In June 2010, Russia began gradually reducing volumes transmitted to Belarus, which responded by paying the amounts demanded.
Gazprom is the sole owner of the Russian and Belarusian gas pipeline section. EuRoPol Gaz (a joint venture of Gazprom and Polish PGNiG) owns the Polish pipeline section of the gas pipeline. Gascade Gastransport GmbH (a joint venture of Gazprom and Wintershall Holding GmbH) owns the German section of the gas pipeline.
The 1,660 km-long gas pipeline can carry 33 billion cubic meters a year. It transports natural gas from the Yamal peninsula to European consumers. Construction began in 1994 and the pipeline was fully commissioned in 2006. The total cost was estimated around $36 billion.
From Malnow, Poland to Slonim, Belarus the pipeline is known as "EuRoPoL".
Gas flows to Europe via the pipeline started falling at the end of July 2021 and halved in August after a fire at a Gazprom processing plant in Urengoy, in the Yamal-Nenets region. This supply disruption contributed to a record spike in European gas and power prices in late summer, though gas flows through the pipeline had recovered to previous levels by mid-September.
In May, 2022, the Russian Gazprom announced that they would stop all flow of gas through the Polish section of the pipeline, claiming that Poland had "Violated Gazprom's rights many times and imposed sanctions on the Russian energy giant."
Route and Technical Details
The 402 km Russian segment starts from the Torzhok gas transmission hub in Tver Oblast. This section receives gas from the Northern Tyumen Regions (SRTO)–Torzhok Gas Pipeline. It consists of compressor stations at Rzhevskaya, Kholm-Zhirkovskaya and Smolenskaya.
The 575 km Belarusian section runs across Belarus and includes five compression stations, at Nesvizhskaya, Krupskaya, Slonimskaya, Minskaya and Orshanskaya. It passes through nearly 200 kilometers of bogs, 75 river crossings, 10 railways lines and three power transmission networks.
The Polish section is 683 km long and passes through 32 railway lines, 246 roads, streams and seven large rivers. This section also includes five compressor stations at Ciechanow, Szamotuly, Zambrow, Wloclawek and Kondratki.
The westernmost point of the gas pipeline is the Mallnow compressor station near Frankfurt an der Oder in the vicinity of the German-Polish border. There, the gas pipeline links up with the YAGAL-Nord gas transmission system, which is, in turn, connected to the STEGAL – MIDAL – Rehden UGS gas transmission system.
The SciGrid IGG dataset refers to the pipeline as INET_PL_2724, INET_PL_2723, INET_PL_2726, INET_PL_2727, INET_PL_2728 and INET_PL_2820.
Articles and resources
- Yamal – Europe Gas Pipeline, Hydrocarbons Technology, accessed April, 2018
- Gazprom's Yamal-Europe gas pipeline project nears start-up, Oil & Gas Journal, November 8, 1999
- "Yamal – Europe". www.gazprom.com. Retrieved 2020-12-11.
- "Yamal-Europe Gas Pipeline". NS Energy Business. Retrieved Jul 21st, 2022. Check date values in:
- Coal Creative - cweb.pl. "Facts and figures". www.europolgaz.com.pl. Retrieved 2022-07-21.
- The Yamal-Europe Natural Gas Pipeline, Oil Price.com, February 14, 2011
- Yamal-Europe Gas Pipeline, accessed April, 2018
- European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (October 2020). "TYNDP 2020 - MAP – Transmission" (PDF). ENTSOG. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- Natalia Chumakova, Oksana Kobzeva, UPDATE 2-Gazprom cancels Aug condensate exports after Urengoy fire, sources say, Reuters, Aug. 11, 2021
- Tom Marzec-Manser, Gascade data, Twitter, Sep. 14, 2021
- "Russia's Gazprom no longer to use Polish section of Yamal-Europe gas pipeline". Retrieved 2022-07-21.
- Diettrich, Pluta, Medrjoubi (July 23, 2020). "The combined IGG gas transmission network data set". DLR Institute for Networked Energy Systems. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
Related GEM.wiki articles
- Existing Pipelines in Russia
- Existing Pipelines in Belarus
- Existing Pipelines in Poland
- Existing Pipelines in Germany