ZETES power stations
|This article is part of the CoalSwarm coverage of Turkey and coal.|
ZETES power station (ZETES is short for Zonguldak Eren Termik Santrali, or Zonguldak Eren Thermal Power Plant) is a 1,390-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant in Zonguldak province, Turkey. They are known as Zetes-1 and Zetes-2. In addition, Zetes-3 is a 1,400 MW coal plant. The company refers to Çatalağzı thermal plant, not to be confused with Çatalağzı power station.
The undated satellite photo below shows ZETES-2 in the southwest, ZETES-3 in the northeast, and ZETES-1 in the middle. The plants are near Çatalağzı town, Zonguldak district, Zonguldak province.
Background on ZETES-1 and -2
In 2006, Eren Enerji (a subsidiary of Eren Holding) announced that, in addition to the 160-MW coal-fired ZETES-1 that the company was already planning, the company would also build the two-unit, 1,230-MW, $1.5 billion coal-fired ZETES-2 plant. ZETES-1 came online in 2010, and ZETES-2 in December 2010. ZETES-1 runs on circulating fluidized bed technology, while ZETES-2 runs on supercritical technology. Both plants run on imported bituminous coal, which arrives via a nearby coal port, also owned by Eren.
In January 2017, ZETES-1 was reported to have been shut down due to a decrease in electricity prices and the lack of a state purchase guarantee  However, an October report stated that it was at that time to be shut down for repairs but reopened after a few weeks.
Financing for ZETES-1 and -2
In October 2009, financial close was reached for ZETES-1 and -2. Just over US$1 billion in loans was provided by Isbank, Garanti Bank, and Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), while Eren Enerji provided US$550.00m in equity.
In July 2012, Eren Enerji began the environmental permitting process to build the additional two-unit, 1,320-MW, $1.2 billion coal-fired ZETES-3 plant near the neighboring town of Muslu. In November 2012, the Ministry of Environment & Urban Planning gave ZETES-3 the initial go-ahead, and site preparation work began. In February 2013, Eren signed a construction agreement with Chinese company Harbin Electric Corporation.
In April 2013, following a lawsuit by the organization Yaşanabilir Zonguldak Platformu (Livable Zonguldak Platform), a local administrative court ordered Eren to stop construction on ZETES-3 while the case played out. In May 2013, even as the lawsuit over ZETES-3 was continuing, Eren filed for environmental permits to build the 660-MW coal-fired ZETES-4 plant; the proposal was immediately condemned by local officials and environmental groups, and plans for ZETES-4 appear to have been cancelled.
While locals initially supported ZETES-1 and -2 because of the strong tradition of coal mining in the area, opposition began when locals realized that the plants would be burning imported bituminous coal rather than locally-mined lignite coal. Throughout the permitting processes for ZETES-3 and -4, local residents have expressed strong opposition to the proposals, especially after noticing the effects of increased pollution from ZETES-1 and -2.  Protests have been ongoing (see video at right).
In October 2014, a ceremony was held by contractor HEI of China to commemorate the continued construction of the plant, which was described as 40% complete.
Eren brought the first 700MW unit of Zetes 3 online in June 2016, with the second 700MW unit expected to start up by mid-August 2016. According to Eren, the second unit began operating in August 2016.
In October 2017, two Chinese workers were reported to have been injured by an explosion during the repair of a turbine cover.
In November 2013, a financing agreement for ZETES-3 was closed. US$800 million in loans was provided by Garanti Bank and Isbank. US$250 million in equity was provided by Eren Enerji.
Power plants in Zonguldak are alleged to cause illnesses, for example from airborne particulates from dried ash ponds. Following concerns of unhealthy PM10 levels, in November 2017 the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization increased its monitoring of air quality in Çatalağzı. 
Project Details for ZETES-3
- Sponsor: Eren Enerji
- Parent company: Eren Holding
- Location: Çatalağzı/Muslu towns, Zonguldak district, Zonguldak province, Turkey
- Coordinates: 41.5137599, 31.9092184 (exact)
- Status: Operating
- Gross capacity: 1,400 MW (Units 1-2: 700 MW)
- Type: Supercritical
- In service: 2016
- Coal type: Bituminous
- Coal source: Imported (Brazil, Australia, Ukraine, Russia) but may convert to local 
- Source of financing: US$800 million in debt from Garanti Bank and Isbank; US$250 million in equity from Eren Enerji
- WRI ID: WRI1018702
- EBC ID: TR-7, TR-27 and TR-28
Articles and resources
- Eren Enerji'den 1.200 MW'lik yatırım, Global Enerji, Dec. 10, 2006.
- Eren Enerji, Eren Enerji website, accessed May 2014.
- Zetes Coal Power Plant Turkey, Global Energy Observatory, accessed May 2014.
- EREN ZETES-1’İ KAPATIYOR!, Halkın Sesi, Jan 2017.
- 8 elektrik santralinde üretim kesintisi, Dünya, Oct 2017.
- Eren Enerji coal-fired power plant , IJGlobal, Feb. 12, 2010
- Zonguldak Eren Termik Santrali (ZETES) III, Ministry of Environment & Urban Planning website, July 6, 2012.
- Anelia Stefanova & Daniel Popov, Üzerimizdeki Kara Bulutlar: Türkiye’nin Kömür Sevdasının Karadeniz’deki Yerel Ekonomiler Üzerinde Oluşturduğu Tehdit, Greenpeace Turkey, Oct. 2013, pp. 10-12.
- A Black Future for the Black Sea and Its People: Is the Rest of Europe Funding Turkey's Huge Coal Power Plans?, Bankwatch, May 10, 2013.
- Termik santral inşaatına mahkeme 'dur' dedi, Radikal, Apr. 9, 2013.
- Eren Enerji, 1320 MW'lık Kömür Santrali için Çinli Harbin Electric ile anlaştı, Enerji Enstitüsü, Feb. 5, 2013.
- Zonguldaklılar Bilirkişi Raporu İçin Destek Bekliyor, Kara Atlas website, June 10, 2013.
- Zonguldak Termik Santrallere karşı yekvücut, Yeşil Gazete, Apr. 9, 2013.
- Çevrecilerden, Eren Enerji ve Çevre Müdürü'ne sert tepki, Pusula Gazeti, May 25, 2013.
- Santrale asla geçit vermeyeceğiz, Önder, May 28, 2013.
- Termik santral raporu korkutuyor, Hürriyet, Nov. 16, 2013.
- "HEI-Contracted Zetes III 2x660MW Coal Fired Power Plant EPC Project Holds Erection Commencement Ceremony," HEI website, 2014-10-23
- "Turkey taxes power sector coal imports," Argus, 02 Aug 2016
- "News from Eren," Eren Enerji, accessed January 2018
- "Eren Enerji'nin termik santralinde patlama: İki işçi yaralandı," Sol, 17 Oct 2017
- "Preview of Zetes 3 Coal Power Plant Financing (1320MW) | Transaction | IJGlobal". ijglobal.com. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
- "Çatalağzı Çevre Koruma Derneği Başkanı Aydemir Akbaş:," Milliyet, 6 Feb 2018
- "2800 MW’lik ithal kömür santrali yerli kömürlü santrale dönüştürülecek," Enerji Enstitüsü, 7 Nov 2017