Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline is an operating natural gas pipeline comprising three parallel lines, A, B, and C, as well as an additional line D in construction.[1]

Location (Lines A,B,C)

The three parallel pipelines run from Saman-Depe on the Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan border east to Olot, Shymkent, and Alataw Pass to Horgos, Xinjiang Province, China.

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Project Details (Lines A-C)

  • Operator: PipeChina; Türkmengaz; Uzbekneftegas; KazMunayGas
  • Parent Company: In China: Line A: PipeChina; Line B: PipeChina; Line C: PipeChina 52%, Baosteel 16%, China NCSSF 16%; China Urban Infrastructure Fund 16%
  • Current Capacity: Line A - 15 billion cubic meters per annum (BCM/Y), Line B - 15 BCM/Y, Line C - 25 billion BCM/Y[2]
  • Length: 1,833 kilometers for each line, for a total of 5,499 kilometers (3416.9 miles)
  • Diameter: Line A: 1,067 mm (42 inches), Line B: 1,067 mm (42 inches), Line C: 1,219 mm (48 inches)[3]
  • Status: Lines A, B, C: Operating[2]
  • Financing: US$11 billion in loans from China Development Bank and Bank of China[4]
  • Start Year: Line A 2009, Line B 2010, Line C 2014

Project Details (Line D)

  • Operator: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC); China National Petroleum Corporation;
  • Parent Company: Türkmengaz; Uzbekneftegas; KazMunayGas
  • Current Capacity: 30 billion cubic meters per year
  • Length: 1,000 kilometers (621 miles)[5]
  • Status: Construction suspended[2]
  • Start Year: 2022[2]


The initial proposal for Central Asia–China gas pipeline was presented as the Kazakhstan–China gas pipeline, which was to follow along the Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline. In June 2003, during China's President Hu Jintao's visit to Kazakhstan, agreements to expedite the appraisal of the project were signed.[6] Following these agreements, KazMunayGas and PetroChina started a feasibility study of the pipeline project. At the same time China continued negotiations with other Central Asian countries.

On 3 April 2006, China and Turkmenistan signed a framework agreement for pipeline construction and long-term gas supply.[7] In June 2007, during his visit to China, Turkmeni President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow signed an accord to speed up implementation of the Turkmeni-Chinese gas pipeline project.[8] On 30 April 2007, Uzbekistan and China signed an agreement on the construction and exploitation of the pipeline's Uzbekistan section.[9] In July 2007, it was formally announced that Turkmenistan will join original Kazakhstan-China pipeline project.[10] On 8 November 2007, Kazakhstan's oil company KazMunayGas signed an agreement with the China National Petroleum Corporation on principles of future work on the pipeline.[11]

On 30 August 2007, the construction of the 188-km (117-mi) long Turkmen section of the pipeline began. This section was built by Stroytransgaz, a subsidiary of Gazprom.[12] Main contractors were China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau, China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation, and Zeromax.[13] Construction of the Uzbek section started on 30 June 2008.[13][14] It was built by Asia Trans Gas, a joint venture of Uzbekneftegas and China National Petroleum Corporation.[15] Construction works of the Kazakh section started on 9 July 2008 and the first stage was finished in July 2009. It was built by Asian Gas Pipeline company, a joint venture of CNPC and KazMunayGas. The main contractors of this section were KazStroyService and China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation.[16] The first of the two initial parallel lines were completed in early November 2009.[17]

The Kazakh section of the pipeline was inaugurated on 12 December 2009 during Chinese president Hu Jintao's visit to Kazakhstan.[18] The whole pipeline was inaugurated on 14 December 2009 in a ceremony in Saman-Depe during Hu Jintao's visit to Turkmenistan with the leaders of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.[19] On 13 June 2010 China and Kazakhstan signed an agreement on a branch line from Western Kazakhstan.[20]

The second line was completed by the end of 2010. Construction of the third line began in 2012.[21] It became operational on 15 June 2014, and is expected to reach the designed throughput of 25 billion cubic meters per annum (880×109 cu ft/a) in December 2015. The construction of a fourth line of the pipeline is expected to be launched at the end of 2014.[22]

Technical features

The whole pipeline is about 1,833 km (1,139 mi) long, of which 188 km (117 mi) are in Turkmenistan and 530 km (330 mi) are in Uzbekistan.[17][18] The diameter of the pipeline is 1,067 millimeters (42.0 in).[16] The pipeline consists of three parallel lines, known as lines A, B, and C, with combined total capacity of 55 billion cubic meters per annum (1.9×1012 cu ft/a) which would be reached by 2015.[22] Construction of the first line cost US$7.3 billion.[23]

Line A is 1,833-km (1,139mi) in length and was inaugurated in December 2009.[23] Line A is owned and operated by CNPC.

Line B is 1,833-km (1,139mi) in length and was inaugurated in October 2010.[23] Line B is owned and operated by CNPC.

Line C is the Uzbekistan portion of the pipeline, and is 530 km (330 mi) in length and runs parallel to lines A and B. Line C hasa capacity of 25bcm annually and will increase the total transmission capacity of the Central Asia-China pipeline to 55bcm annually.[23] Line C is owned by CNPC 52%, Baosteel (16%), China NCSSF (16%) and China Urban Infrastructure Fund (16%).[24]


The pipeline starts in Saman-Depe carrying natural gas from the Bagtyýarlyk gas fields on the right bank of Amu Darya in Turkmenistan. It is mainly supplied from Ýolöten Gas Field and Sag Kenar fields.[25] The pipeline enters Uzbekistan in Olot and runs across Uzbekistan to southern Kazakhstan parallel to the existing Bukhara–Tashkent–Bishkek–Almaty pipeline.[8] The pipeline crosses the Kazakhstan–China border at Horgos, where it is connected to the West-East Gas Pipeline 2.[26][27]

In Shymkent, the pipeline will be linked with the 1,400-km (830-mi) branch line from Beyneu in western Kazakhstan.[20][28] It will supply natural gas from the Karachaganak Field, Tengiz Field and Kashagan Field.[29] The branch line will have a capacity of 15 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year.[28][30] It will be commissioned in 2014.[28]

Line D Location

The expansion will run from Turkmenistan’s gas fields to the Chinese border through Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Line D Background

In January 2018 it was announced that construction had begun on Line D of the pipeline.[5] It is also reported that construction began in 2014.[2] Line D would be 1,000 km (621 mi) in length and would carry an additional 30 bcm of gas a year from Turkmenistan’s gas fields to Chinese border through Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Construction is expected to be complete by 2020.[5] In Tajikistan, the gas pipeline will run through Tursunzoda, Shahrinav, Hisor, Roudaki, Vahdat, Fayzobod, Nourobod, Rasht and Lakhsh (formerly Jirgatol) to Kyrgyzstan’s border.[5] Line D would be operated by Trans-Asia Gas Pipeline Company Ltd (Trans-Asia Gas), a subsidiary of CNPC, and Tojiktransgaz.[5] In January 2020, it was reported that construction was suspended but that the pipeline was expected to be completed by 2022.[2]


Initial financing for the pipeline of US$11 billion in loans was provided in November 2008 by China Development Bank and Bank of China.[4]

Articles and resources


  1. Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline, Wikipedia, accessed March 2018
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Michael Bradshaw and Alec Waterworth, "China’s dash for gas: local challenges and global consequences," Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol 61, 2020, Issue 3, page 20
  3. "Flow of natural gas from Central Asia," CNPC, accessed October 2020
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline Financing (3666KM)," IJGlobal, accessed Oct. 26, 2020
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Construction of Tajik section of Turkmenistan-China gas pipeline starts, says Tajik official, Asia-Plus, Jan. 31, 2018
  6. "China, Kazakhstan Discuss Cross-border Gas Pipeline". China Daily. 2004-08-25. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  7. Daniel Kimmage (2006-04-10). "Central Asia: Turkmenistan-China Pipeline Project Has Far-Reaching Implications". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Analysis: Turkmen Gas Deal Extends Chinese Influence". BBC Monitoring Central Asia. Downstream Today. 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  9. "Uzbekistan and China to build gas pipeline". Caucaz.com. 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  10. "Turkmenistan to join China, Kazakhstan pipeline project – KazMunaiGas EP CEO". Forbes. Thomson Financial. 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  11. Maria Golovnina (2007-11-08). "Kazakhstan, China agree to press ahead with pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  12. Marat Gurt (2008-02-19). "Russian company wins Turkmen China pipeline tender". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Kazakhstan: Workers Complete Section of Turkmenistan-China Pipeline". Eurasianet. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
  14. "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline To Start Service Next Year". Asiaport Daily News. Downstream Today. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  15. "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline, Turkmenistan to China". hydrocarbons-technology.com. hydrocarbons-technology.com. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Construction cost of Kazakhstan to China gas pipeline increases". Steel Guru. 13 July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. 17.0 17.1 "CNPC To Build Phase II Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline". Downstream Today. Xinhua. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Nurshayeva, Raushan; Zhumatov, Shamil (2009-12-12). "China's Hu boosts energy ties with Central Asia". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
  19. Gurt, Marat (2009-12-14). "China extends influence into C.Asia with pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Wan Zhihong (2010-06-14). "China, Kazakhstan sign new gas pipeline deal". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  21. "Construction on third line begins for Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline". Pipelines International. March 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. 22.0 22.1 "China, Central Asian countries open 3rd gas line". Business Recorder. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline, Turkmenistan to China, Hydrocarbons Technology, accessed March 2018
  24. CNPC secures domestic partners to fund China's Third West-East gas pipeline, S&P Global Platts, May 31, 2012
  25. "Turkmenistan's Producers – The Gas Sector". APS Review Gas Market Trends. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  26. "2nd West-East gas pipeline project in construction". People's Daily. 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  27. Sharip, Farkhad (2007-12-21). "China secures new access to Kazakh oil". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Watkins, Eric (2010-06-18). "China, Kazakhstan sign accords for gas, uranium". Oil % Gas Journal. PennWell Corporation. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  29. "CNPC, JV Partner to Build 2nd Phase of China-Kazakh Pipeline". Asia Pulse. Downstream Today. 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  30. Franz, Paris (2010-06-13). "China, Kazakhstan agree deals on gas, nuclear energy". DigitalJournal.com. Retrieved 2010-06-20.

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External resources

External articles

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