Gate LNG Terminal

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Gate LNG Terminal is an LNG terminal in South Holland Province, Netherlands. Expansion of the terminal's capacity is proposed.


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Project Details

  • Operator: Gate Terminal[1]
  • Owner: Gate Terminal B.V.
  • Parent: Gasunie (50%), Vopak (50%)[2]
  • Location: Maasvlakte, Rotterdam Municipality, South Holland Province, Netherlands
  • Coordinates: 51.971111, 4.068889 (exact)
  • Capacity: 16 bcm/y, of which 12 bcm/y is firm capacity and 4 bcm/y is interruptible capacity[3][4]
  • Cost: Approximately US$1.1 billion[5]
  • Status: Operating
  • Type: Import
  • Start Year: 2011[6]

Note: mtpa = million tonnes per year; bcfd = billion cubic feet per day


GATE (Gas Access to Europe) LNG Terminal is a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal in South Holland Province, Netherlands, in the port of Rotterdam.

The project was first being explored as early as August 2005.[7] A final investment decision was taken in December 2007.[8]

The terminal began construction in June 2008 and was brought into service in September 2011[7]; the construction contract was carried out by Techint and SENER. The terminal is jointly owned by Dutch firms Gasunie and Vopak. It cost around US$1.1 billion.[5][9][10][11]

According to Food and Water Europe's 2019 profile on gas use and production in the Netherlands, "It initially had a capacity of 12bcm, but capacities could be extended to 16bcm. However, since its creation, the terminal has never been used at more than 18% of its capacity and at more than 10% since 2012 (potentially due to high LNG prices). Between January 2012 and March 2019, the terminal’s utilization rate lay at only 7%."[12]

According to Gate LNG Terminal's website, the developers have "created up to 4 BCM of interruptible capacity through additional send-out, available to parties already having a position in Gate."[3] This flexible capacity brings the facility's total possible output to 16 bcm/y.[4]

Transshipment of Russian LNG

In late 2017/early 2018, it was reported that the Gate LNG Terminal was positioning itself as a hub for receiving and then sending out LNG from Novatek's Yamal LNG Terminal in Siberia. In December 2017, Gate LNG carried out the first-ever transshipment of a Yamal cargo and additional Yamal transshipments took place in 2018. These first transshipments were performed on a spot price basis, and Gate said it was positioning the facility as a "backup" for long-term Yamal transshipment contracts which had been arranged at the Zeebrugge LNG Terminal in Belgium.[13]

In April 2022, a report by the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) in April 2022 calculated that €237 million worth of Russian LNG imports had been received at Maasvlakte in Rotterdam in the first two months since Russia's invasion of Ukraine.[14] The Dutch government also announced a commitment to stop purchases of Russian gas by the end of 2022. The Netherlands has been sourcing approximately 15% of its gas from Russia.[15]

Expansion Project

  • Owner: Gate Terminal B.V.
  • Parent company: Gasunie, Vopak
  • Location: Maasvlakte, Rotterdam Municipality, South Holland Province, Netherlands
  • Coordinates: 51.971111, 4.068889 (exact)
  • Capacity: 4 bcm/y[16]
    • Formerly, 1.5 bcm/y (designated "Phase 3")*[17][18][19]
    • Formerly 2.5 bcm/y (designated "Phase 4")*[20], and considered 5-8 bcm/y before that[19]
  • Cost: €350 million[16]
  • Status: Construction[21]
  • Type: Import
  • FID Status: FID taken[22]
  • Start year: 2026[16]

*This expansion project was originally described as two separate expansion projects, which were formerly called Phase 3 and Phase 4 on this page.

Note: mtpa = million tonnes per year; bcfd = billion cubic feet per day; bcm/y = billion cubic meters per year

Expansion Background (Originally Designated "Phase 3")

In March of 2019, the Dutch Gate LNG terminal operator formally launched an open season for 2 billion cubic meters (bcm) per year of new send-out capacity, following a winter of record imports of LNG into northwest Europe. The extent of market interest in the new capacity, to be available from 2021-31, could provide an indication of regional buyers’ expectations for LNG demand in the years ahead.[23]

In early 2019, the terminal owners launched an open season on the proposed expansion capacity. While no contracts were signed, they continue to offer the capacity.[24]

In October 2021, Gate Terminal B.V. confirmed that the expansion of the terminal would allow for 1.5 bcm per year additional capacity starting from October 2024.[18]

Expansion Background (Originally Designated "Phase 4")

In March 2022, announcing measures designed to reduce the Netherlands' reliance on Russian gas imports, the Dutch government said it aimed to double the country's total LNG import capacity, including expanding capacity at the Gate terminal by 5 to 8 bcm. Gasunie said that it hoped to announce more details about the additional capacity expansion in "the near future".[19]

As of October 2022, ENTSOG's Ten-Year Network Development Plan stated that the expansion project (Phase 4) would further expand the terminal's capacity by 2.5 bcm/y.[20]

Combined Expansion Background

In August 2023, Gasunie and Vopak took FID on the expansion project, now considered to be a single expansion project, with plans to add a fourth storage tank. The expansion will bring the terminal's capacity to 20 bcm/y and be completed in 2026.[25]

Articles and resources


  1. 1.0 1.1 International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (May 24, 2022). "Annual Report 2022 Edition" (PDF). GIIGNL. Retrieved July 5, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. 2020 World LNG Report, page 102, International Gas Union, April 27, 2020
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Capacities - Gate". Gate. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  4. 4.0 4.1 LNG Prime Staff (2022-12-12). "Gasunie reveals more details on Dutch LNG capacity expansion plans". LNG Prime. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Gate LNG Terminal, Wikipedia (Dutch), accessed April 2017.
  6. GIIGNL 2021 Annual Report, accessed May 5, 2021
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Milestones". Gate. Retrieved 2022-04-15.
  8. "Final investment decision taken to build first Dutch LNG terminal in Rotterdam | Royal Vopak". Retrieved 2022-04-15.
  9. Gate LNG Terminal, A Barrel Full, accessed July 2017.
  10. Gate LNG Receiving Terminal, The Netherlands, Techint Project Case Study, accessed July 2017.
  11. EconGas: Gate LNG Terminal Opens, LNG World News, 23 Sept. 2011.
  12. Netherlands, Food and Water Europe, Dec. 5, 2019
  13. Dutch Gate terminal positions itself as LNG transshipment hub for Russian Yamal volumes, Offshore Energy, Feb. 26, 2018
  14. Financing Putin’s war on Europe: Fossil fuel imports from Russia in the first two months of the invasion, Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air, Apr. 28, 2022
  15. Nederland wil nog dit jaar van gas en kolen uit Rusland af, NOS, Apr. 22, 2022
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Gate terminal. Gate terminal starts construction of 4th LNG tank at the port of Rotterdam. August 23, 2023.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "LNG Database". Gas Infrastructure Europe. Retrieved June 23, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Lydia Woellwarth, Uniper supports LNG Gate terminal expansion, LNG Industry, Oct 12, 2021
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Gasunie plans second Dutch LNG import terminal, Gate expansion, LNGPrime, Mar. 14, 2022
  20. 20.0 20.1 UPDATED TYNDP 2022 List of Projects. ENTSOG. October 21, 2022.
  21. "Gate terminal starts construction of 4th LNG tank at the port of Rotterdam". Gasunie. 2023-08-23. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  22. Hal Brown, GLM FOCUS: The LNG year in review 2021, part one, ICIS, Dec. 16, 2021
  23. Patrick Sykes, Dutch Gate launches open season to test regional LNG demand, ICIS, Mar. 7, 2019
  24. Jamison Cocklin, European Import Terminals Plan Expansions as U.S. LNG Volumes Grow, Natural Gas Intel, Dec. 30, 2019
  25. Offshore Energy. Gate terminal expanding capacity with 4th LNG tank at Rotterdam port. August 23, 2023.

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