Loy Yang A power station

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Loy Yang A power station is an operating power station of at least 2215-megawatts (MW) in Traralgon South, Victoria, Australia.


Table 1: Project-level location details

Plant name Location Coordinates (WGS 84)
Loy Yang A power station Traralgon South, Victoria, Australia -38.252414, 146.575334 (exact)

The map below shows the exact location of the power station.

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Unit-level coordinates (WGS 84):

  • Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 3, Unit 4: -38.252414, 146.575334

Project Details

Table 2: Unit-level details

Unit name Status Fuel(s) Capacity (MW) Technology Start year Retired year
Unit 1 operating coal - lignite 560 subcritical 1984 2035 (planned)
Unit 2 operating coal - lignite 535 subcritical 1984 2035 (planned)
Unit 3 operating coal - lignite 560 subcritical 1987 2035 (planned)
Unit 4 operating coal - lignite 560 subcritical 1987 2035 (planned)

Table 3: Unit-level ownership and operator details

Unit name Owner
Unit 1 Loy Yang Power Management Pty Ltd [100.0%]
Unit 2 Loy Yang Power Management Pty Ltd [100.0%]
Unit 3 Loy Yang Power Management Pty Ltd [100.0%]
Unit 4 Loy Yang Power Management Pty Ltd [100.0%]


Loy Yang A power station is 2,215 megawatt (MW) brown-coal fired power station in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria, Australia. The power station and the associated Loy Yang mine are owned by Loy Yang Power, which in turn is owned by AGL.

The power station has a nominal output of 2,215 megawatts of electricity which Loy Yang Power states supplies "the equivalent of one third of the State's electricity needs". The power station comprises four generating units - three 560 megawatt units and one 535 megawatt unit. The power station burns brown coal from the adjacent Loy Yang mine. [1]

The first two generating units were commissioned in 1984 and the second two in 1987. The power station, which is the largest brown coal fired power station in Australia, was assessed in 2003 as having an average annual "sent out thermal efficiency" of approximately 31% (HHV).[2]

At the time of taking over the company AGL's Managing Director and CEO, Michael Fraser stated that the Loy Yang A power station "provides 30 per cent of Victoria’s energy needs and is one of the lowest cost generators in the National Electricity Market."[3]

In a 2009 brochure, Loy Yang Power stated that the power station:[4]

  • supplies "supplying approximately one third" of Victoria's electricity;
  • Loy Yang Power’s capacity is "the equivalent of more than 8% of total generation for Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory."
  • construction of the power station began in 1977 while the initial mining of overburden at the mine began in 1982;
  • Loy Yang Power consumes "approximately 60,000 tonnes of brown coal a day";
  • "the boiler consists of a labyrinth of tubes where water is heated and converted to high pressure steam by boiler furnace temperatures of up to 1,300oC."
  • each of the four boilers consumes approximately one million litres of water an hour;
  • the exhaust gases are vented via two 260 metre high chimneys;

In June of 2019, AGL says a unit outage will likely extend to seven months and impact its fiscal 2020 earnings. The company expects the extended outage to result in a potential reduction of $60 million to $100 million in its 2020 underlying net profit, AGL said in a statement.[5]

In April 2022, Unit 2 was taken offline due to a generator fault. AGL will lose an estimated A$73 million as a result of this outage, which is expected to last until August 2022.[6]

In May 2023, it was reported that Unit 1 was undergoing refurbishment "as part of a maintenance program that aims to produce reliable power until the station’s closure in 2035."[7] As part of Australia's transition to renewable energy, some coal plant units are being run at lower capacities at times of the day when solar energy is at its peak, which provides some logistical issues for coal plants.[7]


The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of AGL.[3][8]

Between April 2004 and June 29, 2012 the company was owned by the Great Energy Alliance Corporation, which comprised as its shareholders AGL (32.5%), Tokyo Electric Power Company (32.5%), MTAA Super (11.9%), Transfield Services Infrastructure Fund (14%), Motor Trades Association of Australia (MTAA) Superannuation Fund (12.8%), Westscheme (5.7%) and Statewide Super (2.5%).[8] In June 2012 AGL bought the 67.46 % of shares and loan notes that it did not already own for $448 million.[3]

Loy Yang Power was first created as a corporatised publicly owned generation company in February 1995 as the first step in the Jeff Kennett era privatisation of the State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Loy Yang Power was privatised in May 1997.[8]

Retirement plans

In October 2018, Loy Yang's operations manager suggested that the plant might only remain open until 2038, ten years short of its 50-year operating life, and that operations beyond 2038 would depend upon market conditions.[9]

In February 2019, AGL Energy announced that they will spend $25 million upgrading the Loy Yang A coal-fired power station to boost its output and efficiency. The upgrade to the turbine, to be completed by 2021, will boost output by 15 megawatts without increasing carbon emissions, AGL said.[10]

In February 2022, AGL said it would remove coal from its electricity generation mix entirely by 2045 at the latest – three years earlier than previously planned – and possibly by as early as 2040. The announcement disappointed climate advocates, who have been ramping up demands for the company to exit coal much earlier. The United Nations has called for developed countries to remove coal from their power networks by 2030 in order to avert catastrophic levels of climate change. Under AGL’s new closure dates, Loy Yang A would have its 2048 closure date brought forward to between 2040-2045.[11]

In October 2022, AGL stated that the plant would be decommissioned by 2035. The new timeline was attributed to activist pressure.[12]

In August 2023, it was reported that AGL and the Victorian government had struck an unspecified "risk sharing" agreement that would prevent an unplanned closure "in the event of adverse market conditions" before the power station's scheduled closure date of June 30, 2035.[13][14] AGL said it had "ambitious plans" to repurpose the power station site and associated mine but declined to provide details.[15] An August 2023 statement from the Premier of Victoria stated that part of the deal struck with AGL would "ensure a firm 12-year notice period for the workforce," essentially preventing a retirement before 2035.[16]


The power station is located near Traralgon and, according to the company, "emitted 19,677,128 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2-e) in 2010 making LYP one of the largest single point source emitters of greenhouse gas in Australia.[17]

In April 2018 data from the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) showed that mercury output from Loy Yang B had more than doubled over five years, to 831 kg per year. This figure was more than 640 times the airborne mercury pollution of Eraring power station near Newcastle, New South Wales, despite the fact that Eraring produces three times as much energy as Loy Yang B. The pollution gap between the two power stations is an example of the failure of state-based regulators to properly and consistently control air pollution, Environmental Justice Australia researcher Dr James Whelan said. "The intention of the NPI is that you will actually control air pollution. There’s no excuse not to control it.”[18]

In September 2021 Environment Victoria filed a lawsuit alleging that the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) had failed to adequately consider greenhouse emissions when it reauthorized three Victoria power stations earlier in the year: Loy Yang A, Loy Yang B, and Yallourn.[19]

In October 2022, Environment Victoria's argument was heard in a three-day trial. The organization was seeking a court order to nullify the EPA's decision not to impose emissions limits through Australia's 2017 climate change legislation. A decision on the matter was expected to be delivered in the coming weeks.[20]

Handout from carbon tax package

AGL's subsidiary received $240,116,761.67 of the $1 billion cash payments given out in 2011/12[21] to the operators of the most polluting coal-fired power stations. The cash was paid from the Energy Security Fund which was established as a part of the carbon tax legislation passed in 2011.[22][23]


On September 3, 2007, activists from Real Action on Climate Change chained themselves to the coal conveyor belt from the Loy Yang mine which supplies coal to the brown-coal-fired Loy Yang A Power Station and Loy Yang B Power Station in Traralgon, Australia. Two people attached themselves using lock on devices inside the conveyor belt room, and others hung several large banners from the plant. The action took place several days before an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Sydney, and was intended to draw attention to Prime Minister John Howard's failure to limit Australian carbon emissions. Four people were arrested.[24][25]

Waste disposal

On its website, Loy Yang Power states that adjacent to the power station is a 56 hectare ash pond containing 9.8 million cubic metres of ash. "The ash pond is used to collect the ash and dust removed from the boiler and draft plant of both Loy Yang Power and Loy Yang B. The ash and dust is mixed with water to form a slurry, which is pumped, to the ash pond. The ash and dust then settles from the slurry and the water is recycled back to the power station to be reused in the ash disposal process. Excess saline waste from all Latrobe Valley generators is pumped to the Loy Yang Ash Pond for disposal via an ocean outfall."[1]

In April 2023, it was reported that AGL had sought "approval to expand coal ash dumps at Loy Yang A until 2043," despite the stated plans to close the coal-fired power station in 2035.[26]

National Pollutant Inventory Data

The Australian's Government's National Pollutant Inventory lists emissions from the Loy Yang A power station for 2008/2009 as being:[27]

Substance Air Total (kg) Air Fugitive (kg) Air Point (kg) Land (kg) Water (kg) Total (kg)
Ammonia (total) 25,000 25,000 25,000
Arsenic & compounds 60 1.1 59 60
Beryllium & compounds 34 0.71 33 34
Boron & compounds 31,000 16 31,000 31,000
Cadmium & compounds 49 0.082 49 2.6 52
Carbon monoxide 4,300,000 3,800 4,300,000 4,300,000
Chromium (III) compounds 190 12 180 26 210
Chromium (VI) compounds 120 120 120
Copper & compounds 130 5.6 120 26 150
Fluoride compounds 9,400 41 9,400
Hydrochloric acid 9,000,000 9,000,000 9,000,000
Lead & compounds 160 1.1 160 26 190
Manganese & compounds 4,100 7.2 4,100 130 4,200
Mercury & compounds 31 0.14 31 2.6 34
Nickel & compounds 680 11 660 26 700
Oxides of Nitrogen 38,000,000 8,700 38,000,000 38,000,000
Particulate Matter 10.0 um 2,800,000 1,500,000 1,300,000 2,800,000
Particulate Matter 2.5 um 850,000 850,000 850,000
Polychlorinated dioxins and furans (TEQ) 0.00036 0.00036 0.00036
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (B[a]Peq) 16 0.015 16
Sulfur dioxide 66,000,000 430 66,000,000 66,000,000
Sulfuric acid 31,000 31,000 31,000
Total Volatile Organic Compounds 2,300 400 1,900 2,300
Zinc and compounds 1,500 11 1,400 190 1,600

Articles and Resources


  1. 1.0 1.1 Loy Yang Power, "What we do: Power Generation: Facts", Loy Yang Power website, accessed August 2010.
  2. J. Nunn, A. Cottrell, A. Urfer, L. Wibberley and P. Scaife, "A Lifecycle Assessment of the Victorian Energy Grid", Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, February 2003, page 7. (Pdf).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "AGL completes purchase of Loy Yang A power station and adjacent mine", Media Release, June 29, 2012.
  4. Loy Yang Power, "Loy Yang Power", Loy Yang Power, September 2009.
  5. Loy Yang Power, "AGL flags 7-month outage at Loy Yang", News.com.au, June 6 2019.
  6. Loy Yang-A coal plant outage expected to cost AGL at least 73 million, Renew Economy, May 2, 2022
  7. 7.0 7.1 Works on Loy Yang generator, Latrobe Valley Express, May 16, 2023
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Ownership", Loy Yang Power website, accessed August 2012.
  9. Loy Yang to remain until 2048: AGL, Latrobe Valley Express, Oct. 25, 2018
  10. John Dagge, Loy Yang A power station to get $25m upgrade, Herald Sun, February 6, 2019
  11. "AGL brings forward coal power exit by at least three years," Sydney Morning Herald, February 10, 2022
  12. "Stunning week of early coal closures opens path to 100 pct renewables," Renew Economy, October 2, 2022
  13. "Taxpayers face bill for early coal closure for AGL’s Loy Yang A," The Age, August 21, 2023
  14. "Loy Yang - Structured Transition Agreement," AGL, August 21, 2023
  15. "Environmentalists concerned by Loy Yang A coal mine repurposing as AGL confirms plant closure," ABC News, August 20, 2023
  16. Agreement Secures Transition For Loy Yang A, Government of Victoria, Australia, August 20, 2023
  17. Loy Yang Power, "2010 Sustainability Report", Loy Yang Power, September 2011, page 41.
  18. Coal-fired power stations caused surge in airborne mercury pollution, study finds, The Guardian, Apr. 3, 2018
  19. Court challenge launched over pollution from Victoria's coal power stations, ABC, Sep. 22, 2021
  20. Environment Victoria launches Supreme Court challenge of EPA's review of coal-fired power stations in Latrobe Valley, ABC, October 23, 2022
  21. Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency,"Generation complexes eligible to receive Energy Security Fund cash payments", Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency website, July 9, 2012.
  22. Australian Government, "An overview of the Clean Energy Legislative Package", Clean Energy Future website, accessed January 2013.
  23. Energy Security Council, "About the Council", Energy Security Council website, accessed January 2013.
  24. Climate Protest Shuts Down Power Station, ABC News, September 3, 2007.
  25. Disrupting Loy Yang, Real Action on Climate Change blog, September 3, 2007.
  26. Toxic coal ash dumps leave Latrobe Valley communities at risk, Environment Victoria, March 10, 2023
  27. National Pollutant Inventory, "2008/2009 report for LOY YANG POWER MANAGEMENT P/L, Loy Yang Power - Traralgon, VIC ", Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, March 2010.

Additional data

To access additional data, including an interactive map of coal-fired power stations, a downloadable dataset, and summary data, please visit the Global Coal Plant Tracker on the Global Energy Monitor website.