Methane released by coal mining

From Global Energy Monitor

Coal mining is a major source of global methane emissions, emitting 43 million tonnes per year, according to the International Energy Agency, comparable to the oil and gas industries.

In 2022, Global Energy Monitor published a report and model to estimate coal mine methane at individual coal mines.

Coal mining methane sources

Coal mining releases methane in four ways:[1]

  • Underground Mining: In the United States, methane from underground mining operations is typically vented. In some other countries it is also flared.
  • Surface Mining: During surface mining, methane is released directly to the atmosphere.
  • Post-Mining Activities: Some methane remains in the coal after mining and is released during subsequent processing and transportation.
  • Abandoned Mines: Methane emissions from abandoned mines are not quantified and included in U.S. inventory estimates, but may be significant.

Methane's climate impact

Methane plays a significant role in the dynamics of global warming. Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas with a high global warming potential 85 times that of carbon dioxide (averaged over 20 years) or 29.8 times that of carbon dioxide (averaged over 100 years), according to the IPCC's Sixth Assessment Report.[2]

An average molecule of CH4 lasts around eight to nine years before it gets oxidized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).[3] When methane in the atmosphere is eventually oxidized, it produces carbon dioxide and water. This breakdown accounts for the decline in the global warming potential of methane over longer periods of time.

CH4 concentrations have more than doubled over the last 150 years.[3] According to calculations reported in 2005, methane emissions may account for a third of the climate warming from greenhouse gases between the 1750s and the present, twice the level of previous estimates.[4]

Amount of methane released by coal mining

A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimated that surface mining releases 1.91 grams of methane per kilogram of surface mined coal. The same study estimated that mining releases 4.23 grams of methane per kilogram of underground-mined coal.[5]

According to the EPA, coal mining accounts for about 10 percent of US releases of methane (CH4), a potent global warming gas.[6] It is the fourth largest source of methane, following landfills, natural gas systems, and enteric fermentation.[6]


As of June 2010, no national limits exist on air pollution from coal mines. On June 17, 2010, in a petition presented to Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Lisa Jackson, a coalition of environmental groups called for new controls over coal mine air pollution. The petition states that coal mines should be held to the Clean Air Act standards in force for gravel mines, coal-fired power plants, coal processing plants, and other sources. The petition also calls on Jackson to adopt strict limits on other dangerous air pollutants released from coal mines, including methane, as well as particulate matter, nitrogen oxide gases, and volatile organic compounds — all toxic air pollutants under the Clean Air Act.[7]

On June 29, 2010, it was announced that underground coal mines, industrial wastewater-treatment systems, and industrial-waste landfills will have to disclose details about methane emissions under a rule finalized by U.S. environmental regulators. The emitters will begin collecting emissions data on Jan. 1, 2011 under the regulation, with the first annual reports due to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on March 31, 2012. According to the EPA, the regulation will give the EPA a more global picture of the emissions of methane, which is the primary greenhouse gas emitted by underground coal mines, industrial-size landfills, and wastewater-treatment systems. Underground coal mines will have to track quarterly methane emissions from each ventilation well or shaft, or each centralized monitoring point, among other data. Industrial-waste landfills will have to track annual methane generation and emissions.[8]

The EPA said in May 2013 that mandatory U.S. budget cuts did not leave it with the resources to determine if methane pollution is a significant risk, a necessary step for regulation, and that the coal mines category represents only about 1 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, according to EPA data.[9]

External resources


  1. "Coal Mine Methane Recovery," Power Partners Resource Guide, accessed May 2008
  2. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)"Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis: 2.10.2 Direct Global Warming Potentials", IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gavin Schmidt, "Methane: A Scientific Journey from Obscurity to Climate Super-Stardom", NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, September 2004.
  4. Krishna Ramanujan, "Methane's Impacts on Climate Change May Be Twice Previous Estimates," Goddard Space Flight Center, July 18, 2005.
  5. Pamela L. Spath et al, "Life Cycle Analysis of Coal-Fired Power Production," National Renewable Energy Laboratory, June 1999
  6. 6.0 6.1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,"Methane: sources and emissions," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website, October 20th, 2006.
  7. "Coal mine air pollution targeted" WY Business report, June 18, 2010.
  8. Siobhan Hughes, "Underground Coal Mines Fall Under New US EPA Reporting Rules" Dow Jones, June 29, 2010.
  9. Mark Drajem, "Coal Mines’ Methane Curbs Fall Victim to EPA Budget Cuts," Bloomberg, May 7, 2013.