Tata Steel IJmuiden steel plant

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Steel Plant Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.
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Tata Steel IJmuiden is a steel plant in IJmuiden and Velsen-Noord, Netherlands.[1] Tata Steel IJmuiden was formerly known as Koninklijke Nederlandse Hoogovens en Staalfabrieken (KNHS) until 1996 (informally Hoogovens), and then Koninklijke Hoogovens.

Location

The map below shows the location of the steel plant in IJmuiden and Velsen-Noord, Netherlands.

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Background

History

Formation

On April 19, 1917, H.J.E. Wenckebach presented his plans which included the establishment of three blast furnaces, a coking plant, and plants for utilizing the by products of the process (coking gas, and slag). In May 1917 a Comité voor oprichting van een hoogovenstaal- en walswerk in Nederland (Committee for establishing blast furnaces and steel rolling mill in the Netherlands) was set up, with the aim of creating a steel works and rolling mills.[2] The plan received support from the large industrial concerns and capitalists of the Netherlands, including Stork, Royal Dutch Shell, Steenkolen Handels-Vereeniging (SHV) and Philips; Hendrikus Colijn, Frits Fentener van Vlissingen, and J. Muysken. Additionally the Dutch state and the city of Amsterdam contributed 7.5 million and 5 million of the 30 million Dutch guilders required to capitalize the project.[3]

On September 20, 1918 the company Koninklijke Nederlandsche Hoogovens en Staalfabrieken N.V. (KNHS) was created in The Hague. Wenckenbach was the Director, Geldolph Adriaan Kessler the secretary, and A.H. Ingen Housz the company's assignee.[2] One of the motivations for the creation of a steelworks was to remove the reliance on imported steel.[3][4] The country's resources of coal and iron ore were also limited, so IJmuiden was chosen over sites at Rotterdam and Moerdijk for being more suitable for both import and export by sea.[3]

By 1924 the first blast furnace, casting hall, coke plant, and an electricity generating plant powered by waste gases from the coke ovens and blast furnaces. The second of two blast furnaces begun in 1919 became operational in 1926.[5] A third blast furnace started operation in 1930.[6]

During the 1930s the plant was further developed, turning from raw iron production to steel production using open hearth furnaces.[7] By 1956 the plant had six furnaces, each of 190t capacity.[8]

1945-1999

After the end of World War II reconstruction of the Netherlands began; as part of this process the steelworks was invested in. A separate company, Breedband NV, was established 19 June 1950, receiving funding from both the state and the United States Marshall Plan. The project introduced a hot and cold rolling mills for thin plate, of 60 and 75 thousand tonnes per year capacity respectively, and a galvanising line. All three installations were operating by the end of 1953.[4]

During the 1950s and 1960s the facilities were extended; the plant's first oxy-steel converted was put into operation in 1958.[9] The sixth blast furnace began operation in 1967, and a second oxy-steel plant in 1968. In 1969 a block mill capable of handling 45t blocks, and another hot strip mill with a capacity of over 3.5 million tonnes pa were opened.[10]

In 1972 the first two blast furnaces were decommissioned.[5] The same year (1972) the IJmuiden steelworks (Hoogovens IJmuiden BV.[11] KNHS formed its interests that were to be merged (the IJmuiden steelworks) into a company Hoogovens IJmuiden BV, "Estel is founded, 7 July 1972"</ref>) were formed into a 50:50 joint venture named Estel with Hoesch of Germany as the other partner,{{#tag:ref|In the late 1960s Hoogovens and Hoesch had planned to build a second Dutch steel plant in Rotterdam. The proposal was blocked by the Rotterdam council, having received opposition from the public and green groups.[7] who merged their Dortmund steel plant into the concern. IJmuiden with good access to seaborn raw materials was to act primarily as a raw steel supplier to the plant in Germany, which was closer to a large market for finished steel products - the steel crisis of the 1970s prevented any positive expansion and the company was disbanded in 1982 when funding arrangements for the loss making Dortmund plant could not be agreed.[12]

In the late 1990s two blast furnaces were purchased by the Indonesian steel group Gunawan Steel Group and dismantled and shipped to its development in Malaysia; Gunawan Iron and Steel. The dismantling work was carried out by a Chinese contractor which was found to be paying its 120 Chinese workers less than the Dutch minimum wage, with poor safety conditions, with 14 accidents resulting in 2 fatalities due to falls from height. The Chinese contractor was fined for breaches of safety practice, and made to improve working conditions, as well as retrospectively paying its workers 15,000 Guilders.[13][14][15][16][17]

In 1996 the company changed its official name to Koninklijke Hoogovens.[18] A new continuous caster was installed between 1998 and 2000.[19]

Corus group 1999-2007

In June 1999 British Steel plc and Hoogovens announced that they were to merge under the name "Corus", with Hoogovens forming 38.3% of the new group; the new company provisionally title 'BSKH' was then the third largest in the world, with sales of £9.4 billion.[20]

Tata Steel 2007-present

In 2007 Tata Steel acquired Corus and subsequently renamed it Tata Steel Europe in 2010.[21] In 2008 due to lack of demand the Corus steel group cut production by 20%; in IJmuiden one blast furnace was taken out of production.[21]

In June 2020, Tata Steel workers went on strike at IJmuiden plant to protest planned job cuts in the Netherlands. Unions reported that Tata aims to cut more than 1,000 of the 9,000 jobs at the IJmuiden plant in the Netherlands to improve the profitability of its European business.[22]

In November 2020, Swedish steelmaker SSAB was reported to be in talks with Tata Steel about potentially buying the Indian group's Dutch steel mill in IJmuiden. According to statements from SSAB, “SSAB has participated in several different discussions concerning consolidations in the European steel industry. The discussions with Tata are ongoing but no decisions have been made.”[23]

Plant Details

Articles and resources

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Operations, Tata Steel, Retrieved on: Mar. 11, 2020
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Short history of CORUS IJmuiden", www.sieho.nl, archived from the original on 7 October 2007, retrieved 31 January 2007, para. 1-5
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Pederson, Jay P., ed. (2003), "Corus Group plc", International Directory of Company Histories, St. James Press, 49, via www.fundinguniverse.com, para. 1-3
  4. 4.0 4.1 Schenk, Hans (2001), "6. A 'Dutch Miracle' in steel policy? Laissez-faire intervention, wage restraint and the evolution of Hoogovens", in Bovens, M.A.P.; Peters, B. Guy; 't Hart, Paul (eds.), Success and failure in public governance: a comparative analysis, New Horizons in Public Policy, series editor Wayne Parsons, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 84–104
  5. 5.0 5.1 Korte geschiedenis CORUS IJmuiden, KNHS eerste fase, Kooksfabriek 1 1924; Hoogoven 1 1924 - 1972 Hoogoven 2 1926 - 1972; Giethal 1924 - 1948; Centrale 1 1924
  6. History Steel Company, (Corus), "Blast - Furnace 3 is lit 13 July 1930"
  7. 7.0 7.1 Vrieling, Lammert (1998), "THE PATHFINDER : STRATEGY PATHS AND RESOURCES IN THEIR TERRITORY THROUGH TIME", dissertations.ub.rug.nl, University of Groningen / Labyrint Publication, ISBN 90-72591-60-7, archived from the original on 5 July 2013, retrieved 14 February 2012, Table 5.1, p.117; p.129
  8. Geïntegreerd staalbedrijf, Buizengieterij 1936; Martin Staal Fabriek 1939 - 1972
  9. History Steel Company, (Corus), "Oxy steel factory 1 officially opened, 22 Feb 1958"
  10. History Steel Company, (Corus), "Blast Furnace 6 officially lit, 28 November 1967"; "Oxy steel factory 2 put into use, 5 Oct 1968"; ""Block Mill 3 and Hot Strip Mill 2"
  11. KNHS formed its interests that were to be merged (the IJmuiden steelworks) into a company Hoogovens IJmuiden BV, source: History Steel Company (2007), "Estel is founded, 7 July 1972"
  12. See sources in Wikipedia article Estel
  13. MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN STEELMAKING CAPACITY IN THE NON-OECD AREA, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development : DIRECTORATE FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY : STEEL COMMITTEE, 14 October 1997, p. 38, archived from the original on 4 March 2016, retrieved 13 December 2019
  14. "Chinese company may continue demolition work", www.eurofound.europa.eu, 28 July 1997
  15. "Chinese company fined for its dangerous working conditions", www.eurofound.europa.eu, 28 October 1997
  16. "Onrust over ongevallen op terrein Hoogovens", www.digibron.nl (in Dutch), 23 May 1997
  17. "Vergunning Chinees bedrijf in gevaar", www.trouw.nl (in Dutch), 3 June 1997, archived from the original on 24 July 2013, retrieved 7 February 2012
  18. History Steel Company (2007), www.steel90.com, Corus, 2007, archived from the original on 9 December 2013, "Name is changed, 1 January 1996"
  19. History Steel Company (2007), www.steel90.com, Corus, 2007, archived from the original on 9 December 2013, "Casting mill installation opened, 17 April 2000"
  20. British Steel merges with Dutch rival, BBC, Jun. 7, 1999, Retrieved on: Mar. 12, 2020
  21. 21.0 21.1 Corus Group Press Release, Corus, Nov. 7, 2008, Retrieved on: Feb. 15, 2012
  22. Dutch Tata Steel workers strike at IJmuiden plant, Reuters Staff, Jun. 28, 2020
  23. [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tata-steel-m-a-ssab/ssab-eyes-tata-steels-dutch-assets-as-european-consolidation-picks-up-idUSKBN27T23W SSAB eyes Tata Steel's Dutch assets as European consolidation picks up], Johannes Hellstrom, Bart H. Meijer, Abhirup Roy, Reuters, Nov. 13, 2020
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 Tata Steel in Europe, Tata Steel, Retrieved on: Mar. 11, 2020
  25. Tata Steel IJmuiden BF 2017, European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, Oct. 9, 2019
  26. 2016 Minerals Yearbook Netherlands, USGS, August 2019

External resources

External articles

This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Koninklijke Hoogovens under the provisions of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.