TurkStream Gas Pipeline

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TurkStream Gas Pipeline, also known as the Turkish Stream Gas Pipeline (Russian: Газопровод «Турецкий поток»), is a gas pipeline delivering Russian gas to Turkey's gas transmission network.[1][2]


The parallel pipelines enter the water near Anapa, on the Russian coast, and come ashore on the Turkish coast almost 100 kilometers west of Istanbul, near the village of Kiyikoy.[1][2][3]

TurkStream 1 Gas Pipeline

The pipeline runs from the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, to Luleburgaz, Turkey.

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TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline

The pipeline runs from the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, to Malkoçlar, Turkey.

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Project details

TurkStream 1 Gas Pipeline

  • Operator: Gazprom, Botas Petroleum Pipeline Corporation[2]
  • Owner: Gazprom, Botas Petroleum Pipeline Corporation[2]
  • Parent company: Gazprom, Botas Petroleum Pipeline Corporation[2]
  • Capacity: 15.75 bcm/year[1][2][4]
  • Length: 930 km[1]
  • Diameter: 81.3 cm[1]
  • Status: Operating[1][5][6]
  • Start year: 2020[7][2]
  • Cost: US$7.8 billion[8]
  • Financing: €2.14 billion (US$2.5 billion) loan from Gazprom to its subsidiary South Stream Transport B.V. which oversaw the construction of the project[9]
  • Associated infrastructure: Pisarevka-Anapa Gas Pipeline, Pochinki-Anapa Gas Pipeline

TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline


The TurkStream pipeline project consists of two parallel pipelines each with the ability to deliver up to 15.75 bcm/year. The pipelines transport gas from Russia's gas fields to Turkey. The first pipeline supplies natural gas to Turkey, and the second pipeline extends into southeastern Europe.[3]

The second pipeline transports Russian gas to southeastern and central European markets via Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary. This European extension, also referred to as TurkStream 2 and Balkan Stream Gas Pipeline, comprises new and existing infrastructure. In January 2020, Gazprom began deliveries via TurkStream to Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, and North Macedonia using partially completed and existing infrastructure. Since then, Gazprom also has made deliveries via TurkStream to Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Romania. [3]


TurkStream 1 Gas Pipeline

The project seeks to replace an older gas delivery system that runs through Ukraine, and provide a direct connection to Russian gas reserves for Turkey and other European markets.[10]

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed between Gazprom and Turkish company Botaş Petroleum Pipeline Corporation in December 2014 for the construction of the offshore gas pipeline. In June 2015, A permit was issued by Turkish authorities for conducting engineering surveys for the offshore section. Greece and Russia signed a memorandum of co-operation pertaining to the construction and operation of the pipeline on Greek territory, in the same month.[10]

The pipeline's construction began in May 2015, with Gazprom being responsible for constructing the offshore section, whereas the Turkish gas transportation facilities will be built together.[10]Construction of the pipeline was 86% complete as of June 2019.[11] The pipeline was scheduled to be commissioned on Jan. 1, 2020.[12] In January 2020 the pipeline was commissioned.[3]

TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline

In July of 2018, Russia resumed the pipe laying operations for the second string of the offshore TurkStream Gas Pipeline, which aims to deliver gas to southern and southeastern Europe. Russia's Energy Minister Alexander Novak announced that the TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline will run through Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary. TurkStream 2 parallels TurkStream 1 for its 930-km length from Russia to Turkey.

In 2019, a ranking member of Greece's New Democracy party said that the country "was considering whether to allow the new pipeline through Greek territory."

Bulgaria is considering joining Russia's TurkStream 2 pipeline proposal and, according to the country's Ministry of Energy, is ready to invest €1.4 billion ($1.6 billion) in the project. However, its completion is dependent on approval from the necessary authorities, including the European Commission. Experts have already expressed doubts over whether the pipeline will be profitable, and only the third market test was successful. In January 2020 the parallel TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline was commissioned.

Bulgarian officials estimated completion by mid-2020 of around 295 miles of pipeline that is to cross the country and connect to Serbian infrastructure. Serbia's 250-mile segment of pipeline is reportedly complete.

In March 2020, Gazprom TurkStream 2 was expected to bring gas to Serbia and Hungary by December 2020. The project is expected to reach full capacity by October 2022. As of March 2020, the Bulgaria portion was still under construction.

As of October 2020, the pipeline was reported as operational, feeding the Balkan region with natural gas that had traditionally been shipped via the Trans-Balkan Pipeline and Ukraine. It was initially flowing far below its potential capacity.

In January 2021, Gazprom said that a total of six European countries were receiving Russian gas supplies via TurkStream: Bosnia, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia.[13]


The pipelines begin at the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa on the Russian coast of the Black Sea and run parallel to each other for approximately 230 km in Russia's territory in the Black Sea. The remaining 700 km of the offshore pipelines lie within Turkey’s Exclusive Economic Zone.[10] The pipelines come ashore in Kıyıköy, a village in the district of Vize in Kırklareli Province at northwestern Turkey. From the receiving terminal in Turkey, one of the two underground onshore pipelines connects to the existing Turkish gas network at Luleburgaz. The 145 km (90 mi) section connects the Lüleburgaz distribution center with Ipsala on the Turkey–Greece border. The other pipeline continues from Kıyıköy to Malkoçlar on the Turkish–Bulgarian border, where it connects to the existing Trans-Balkan pipeline system.[1][14][4]

U.S. sanctions

In July 2020 U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the TurkStream 2 pipeline and the Nord Stream 2 Gas Pipeline would be subject to U.S. sanctions, and that companies involved in the projects would be subject to U.S. penalties if they did not halt their work. In September 2020 the world's largest shippers' insurance group, International Group of P&I Clubs, announced that it would not insure ships working on these projects as a result of U.S. sanctions.

Articles and resources


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Project, Turkstream, accessed May 2020
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 "«Турецкий поток»". Gazprom. Retrieved 2022-08-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 TurkStream: Russia’s Newest Gas Pipeline to Europe, Congressional Research Service, Feb. 5, 2020
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Две трубы под Черным морем. Как Россия доставляет газ в Турцию". БКС Экспресс. May 29, 2023. Retrieved August 22, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 ""Газпром" возобновил поставки газа по "Турецкому потоку"". TASS. June 12, 2023. Retrieved August 10, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Вероятность того, что газопровод «Турецкий поток» в ближайшие месяцы может стать объектом диверсионной атаки, становится весьма высокой". Нефть Капитал. July 5, 2023. Retrieved August 10, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. 7.0 7.1 PJSC Gazprom (2019). "PJSC Gazprom Annual Report" (PDF). Gazprom. Retrieved October 6, 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Todd Prince, Russia Launches Into New Export Territory With TurkStream Natural-Gas Pipeline, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Jan. 7, 2020
  9. 9.0 9.1 Russia's Gazprom says loans 2.14 billion Euro to TurkStream operator, The Economic Times, Jun. 4, 2018
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Turkstream Pipeline, Offshore Technology, accessed April, 2018
  11. Turkish Stream Pipeline is Almost Finished, Gazprom Says, The Moscow Times, Jul. 10, 2019
  12. UPDATE 1-TurkStream 2nd leg to go via Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, Reuters, Jul. 26, 2019
  13. Russia's Gazprom begins gas deliveries to Serbia, Bosnia via TurkStream pipeline, Reuters, Jan. 1, 2021
  14. "TurkStream". Wikipedia. Retrieved August 11, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)