TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline
|This article is part of the Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.|
TurkStream 2 Pipeline is a gas pipeline. The pipeline links Russian gas to Turkey's gas transmission network and extends to points in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary.
The pipeline enters the water near Anapa, on the Russian coast, and come ashore on the Turkish coast almost 100 kilometers west of Istanbul, near the village of Kiyikoy, after which it continues to points in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary. The route from Hungary onward is unclear. Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak said in 2019 “The launch of the second leg depends on the (gas) infrastructure implementation by our (European) partners.”
- Operator: Gazprom
- Parent Company: Gazprom
- Proposed capacity: 15.75 billion cubic meters per year
- Length: 1,646 km / 1,022.8 miles
- Status: Operating
- Start Year: 2020
- Associated Projects: TurkStream Gas Pipeline
In July of 2018, Russia resumed the pipe laying operations for the second string of the offshore TurkStream Gas Pipeline, which aims to deliver gas to southern and southeastern Europe. Russia's Energy Minister Alexander Novak announced that the TurkStream 2 Gas Pipeline will run through Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary. TurkStream 2 parallels TurkStream for its 930-km length from Russia to Turkey.
In 2019, a ranking member of Greece's New Democracy party said that the country "was considering whether to allow the new pipeline through Greek territory."
Bulgaria is considering joining Russia's TurkStream 2 pipeline proposal and, according to the country's Ministry of Energy, is ready to invest €1.4 billion ($1.6 billion) in the project. However, its completion is dependent on approval from the necessary authorities, including the European Commission. Experts have already expressed doubts over whether the pipeline will be profitable, and only the third market test was successful. In January 2020 the parallel TurkStream Gas Pipeline was commissioned.
Bulgarian officials estimated completion by mid-2020 of around 295 miles of pipeline that is to cross the country and connect to Serbian infrastructure. Serbia's 250-mile segment of pipeline is reportedly complete.
In March 2020, Gazprom TurkStream 2 was expected to bring gas to Serbia and Hungary by December 2020. The project is expected to reach full capacity by October 2022. As of March 2020, the Bulgaria portion was still under construction. 
As of October 2020, the pipeline was reported as operational, feeding the Balkan region with natural gas that had traditionally been shipped via the Trans-Balkan Pipeline and Ukraine. It was initially flowing far below its potential capacity.
In July 2020 U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the TurkStream 2 pipeline and the Nord Stream 2 Gas Pipeline would be subject to U.S. sanctions, and that companies involved in the projects would be subject to U.S. penalties if they did not halt their work. In September 2020 the world's largest shippers' insurance group, International Group of P&I Clubs, announced that it would not insure ships working on these projects as a result of U.S. sanctions.
Articles and resources
- Kostis Geropoulos Gazprom will reduce volumes through Ukraine even further but Russian will not stop gas transit through the former Soviet republic, expert tells NE News Europe, July 2, 2018
- Turkstream (June 28, 2020). "Gas flow through TurkStream resumed". turkstream.info. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- TurkStream: Russia’s Newest Gas Pipeline to Europe, Congressional Research Service, Feb. 5, 2020
- UPDATE 1-TurkStream 2nd leg to go via Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, Reuters, Jul. 26, 2019
- South Stream Transport B.V. "FactSheet: The TurkStream Gas Pipeline" (PDF). Turkstream.info. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
- Aura Sabadus, Ukraine gas TSO ambitious vision linked to Russian pipelines outcome, CEO, Independent Commodity Intelligent Service, October 9, 2020
- Russia's proposed TurkStream 2 pipeline sparks Bulgaria, EU energy worries DW, February 28, 2019
- Elliot, Stuart (March 2, 2020). "Serbia's onshore extension of TurkStream gas link laid: minister". S&P Global. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
- Not So Fast…Aiming to Prevent Their Completion, the Trump Administration Paves Way for Expanded Sanctions on Russian Pipeline Projects, Morrison Foerster, Jul. 17, 2020
- US warns firms about sanctions for work on Russian pipelines, Washington Post, Jul. 15, 2020
- Citing U.S. Sanctions, Insurers Won’t Cover Ships For Russia, Turkey Pipelines Projects, Insurance Journal, Sep. 23, 2020