Basic oxygen furnace

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Steel Plant Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOF, BOS, BOP, or OSM), also known as Linz–Donawitz-steelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron (aka hot metal) is made into steel.[1] Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low-carbon steel. The process is known as basic because fluxes of burnt lime or dolomite, which are chemical bases, are added to promote the removal of impurities and protect the lining of the converter.[2]

The pig iron (aka hot metal), produced from the Blast Furnace (BF), is transported to the BOF for a final stage in the crude steelmaking process. BOFs typically contain conventional top-blown furnaces, bottom-blown furnaces or  various mixed blowing configurations. A top-blown basic oxygen furnace is equipped with the water-cooled oxygen lance for blowing oxygen into the pig iron through 4-6 nozzles. Though less common, a bottom-blown basic oxygen furnace is equipped with 15-20 tuyeres for injection of oxygen or lime powder containing oxygen, where the tuyeres are cooled by either hydrocarbon gas or oil.[3]

Photo from

Options for decarbonizing the BF-BOF steelmaking route are difficult and limited because of the use of metallurgical coal as a reductant in the ironmaking process. For more details see the blast furnace (BF) wiki page.

Raw Material(s):

  • Pig Iron (aka hot metal)
  • Scrap steel
  • Direct Reduced Iron (more commonly used in EAFs)
  • Pure oxygen or lime powder containing oxygen


  • Crude steel


  1. Brock, James W.; Elzinga, Kenneth G. (1991). Antitrust, the market, and the state: the contributions of Walter Adams. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN: 0-87332-855-8, p. 50.
  2. Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Simulation, version 1.36 User Guide,, Retrieved on: May 24, 2014
  3. "Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking". Retrieved 2021-06-29.

External links

This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Basic oxygen steelmaking under the provisions of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Abeckford21 (talk) 05:12, 29 June 2021 (UTC)