Kakanj Thermal Power Plant

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Kakanj Thermal Power Plant is an operating power station of at least 450-megawatts (MW) in Catici, FBIH, Bosnia and Herzegovina with multiple units, some of which are not currently operating. It is also known as Kakanj-B power station (Unit 8, Unit 9).

Location

Table 1: Project-level location details

Plant name Location Coordinates (WGS 84)
Kakanj Thermal Power Plant Catici, FBIH, Bosnia and Herzegovina 44.089722, 18.114444 (exact)

The map below shows the exact location of the power station.

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Unit-level coordinates (WGS 84):

  • Unit 8, Unit 9: 44.089722, 18.114444
  • Unit 5, Unit 6, Unit 7: 44.089633, 18.113865

Project Details

Table 2: Unit-level details

Unit name Status Fuel(s) Capacity (MW) Technology Start year Retired year
Unit 5 operating coal - lignite 110 subcritical 1969 2028[1]
Unit 6 operating coal - lignite 110 subcritical 1977
Unit 7 operating coal - lignite 230 unknown 1988
Unit 8 shelved coal - lignite 300 unknown 2028[2]
Unit 9 cancelled coal - lignite 300 unknown 2032

Table 3: Unit-level ownership and operator details

Unit name Owner
Unit 5 Elektroprivreda BiH dd (EPBiH) [100.0%]
Unit 6 Elektroprivreda BiH dd (EPBiH) [100.0%]
Unit 7 Elektroprivreda BiH dd (EPBiH) [100.0%]
Unit 8 Elektroprivreda BiH dd (EPBiH) [100.0%]
Unit 9 Elektroprivreda BiH dd (EPBiH) [100.0%]

Project-level coal details

  • Coal source(s): Kakanj, Breza and Zenica mine, Kakanj, Breza and Zenica mines

Background

The plant is owned and operated by Elektroprivreda BiH, a publicly owned power utility. The plant supplies electricity to the grid and heat to the city of Kakanj.[3]

On its website, Elektroprivreda BiH stated that 32 megawatt (units 1 and 2) were commissioned in 1956. A further two 32MW units were commissioned in 1960. These four units have now been decommissioned. The 110 MW Units 5 and 6 were commissioned in 1969 and 1977. Both these units were modernized in the mid 1990's following the Bosnian War. The 230 MW Unit 7 was commissioned in 1988 and then rebuilt.[3][4]

The plant produced 1,978 GWh in 2021 and 1,924 GWh in 2022.[5]

Coal supply

As of 2012, Elektroprivreda BiH stated on its website that the Kakanj power station burned approximately 1.8 million tonnes of coal from "mines Kakanj coal mine, Breza and Zenica coal mine and in smaller amount mines Gračanica, Bila and Livno."[3]

Unit 5 Unlawful Operation

In March 2022, a proposal was made to extend the operation of Unit 5 until 2028, despite the expiry of the limited lifetime derogation period (also known as opt-out mechanism). The Energy Community Secretariat said this was "a clear breach of the obligations of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the Energy Community Treaty".[6]

In October 2022, Energy Community initiated action against Bosnia and Herzegovina over the decision. They claimed that the country had breached pollution limits and failed to install necessary upgrades as mandated by the Large Combustion Plants Directive. BiH had two months to respond to the decision.[7] As of May 2023, there was no news on the outcome of this action. A media source from July 2023 stated that the draft NECP 2023 (see below) did not hide the fact that Kakanj 5 will continue to operate after the end of its permitted lifetime.[8] The Energy Community Secretariat in its comments and recommendations on the draft NECP published in December 2023 referred to the unlawful operation of Unit 5 until 2023.[9] However other sources including EPBIH's updated business plans released in October 2023 and then in March 2024 state that Unit 5 will remain in operation.[10][11]

Proposed expansion

Unit 8

A possible 300 MW expansion was floated by Elektroprivreda BiH. China National Electric Engineering CO., Ltd (CNEEC) reportedly expressed interest in the project. In May 2011, Elektroprivreda BiH stated that CNEEC had gained Chinese government and bank support to finance the project. It was also reported that construction of the new unit was "planned in mid-2013".[12]

A long-range plan for Elektroprivrede released in 2014 showed Unit 8 as scheduled for construction in 2018 and entering service in 2022.[13]

On its website (2014), Elektroprivreda BiH stated that the power station received an environmental permit, and construction was scheduled to begin in 2015 and end in 2019.[14]

According to a March 2017 report by Bankwatch, the plant’s original environmental permit expired.[15] A new one appeared issued in July 2017.[16]

On May 21, 2019, it was reported that the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) had tasked the state-owned power utility EPBiH "to accelerate all activities related to the projects for the construction of new units at existing coal-fired thermal power plants Tuzla (unit 7) and Kakanj (unit 8), as well as the project for the construction of TPP Banovici near the coalmine of the same name."[17]

In late 2021, the ministry released the non-technical summary of the request for an environmental permit for public comment. Unit 8 was described as a proposed replacement for units 1, 2, 3 and 4, which are already closed, as well as for unit 5, which is expected to cease operations after the commissioning of unit 8. The investment in unit 8 was estimated at EUR 500 million, with an additional EUR 100 million for coal mines.[18]

EPBIH's 2023-2025 business plan approved in December 2022 still noted it would build Kakanj 8.[19] A year later, updated EPBIH's 2023-2025 business plan released in October 2023 also referred to the plan to build Unit 8 by 2028.[10] According to Bankwatch as well, EPBIH claims the unit will be online by 2028.

In March 2024, the updated business plan of EPBIH for 2024-2026 had no mention of the Kakanj Unit 8.[11] Given that the unit has no permits, no funding and was not the subject of more active discussions in 2023 and 2024, the unit was considered shelved, as of April 2024.

Unit 9

In 2014, an additional 300 MW expansion was announced for construction in 2028 and operation by 2032.[13] The expansion project was presumed cancelled as of July 2022 as there were no known updates since 2014.

Draft NECP (2023): No New Coal

In April 2023, Bosnia and Herzegovina announced a draft national energy plan until 2030 that foresees no new coal-fired plants.[20]

In July 2023, a ‘public’ consultation about Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (BiH) draft National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) was underway. Bankwatch Network summarized the following: "Despite considerable solar and wind potential, the Federation of BiH and Republika Srpska governments have relentlessly pushed to build new coal plants such as Tuzla 7 and Ugljevik III – as well as decades-old hydropower projects in highly sensitive locations – long past their sell-by dates. These dinosaurs have heavily burdened previous energy planning and left little space for new ideas. But the draft NECP finally looks like it was written in the 21st Century: it states that there will be no new fossil fuel plants – coal or gas. This is a significant step that must be maintained in the final version of the NECP."[21][22]

In December 2023, Energy Community Secretariat published comments and recommendations on the draft NECP, summarizing that "the draft plan its current form lacks the analytical basis, the assessment of the impacts of the planned policies and the investments needed to achieve the corresponding targets and objectives. It does not fulfil its objective, namely, to provide a clear set of policies and measures that will set Bosnia and Herzegovina on a predictable path to achieve its 2030 energy and climate targets." Detailed recommendations were provided in the Secretariat report. The final NECP has to be submitted until 30 June 2024.[9]

Financing

  • Unit 8: Proposed in 2011 - loans from China Development Bank[12]

Articles and Resources

References

  1. https://web.archive.org/web/20240207001922/https://balkangreenenergynews.com/energy-community-prolonging-operation-of-coal-plants-in-bih-is-breach-of-treaty/. Archived from the original on 07 February 2024. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |archive-date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20240207001916/https://www.epbih.ba/upload/documents/77SD_Odluka_Revidovani_sa_prilogom.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 07 February 2024. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |archive-date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Thermal-power plant Kakanj," Elektroprivreda BiH website, accessed September 2012
  4. "TPP Kakanj". www.epbih.ba. Retrieved May 2023. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |access-date= (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. "Electricity balance of the Company". www.epbih.ba. 2023. {{cite web}}: line feed character in |title= at position 12 (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. "Energy Community: Prolonging operation of coal plants in BiH is breach of treaty," Balkan Green Energy News, March 28, 2022
  7. "Secretariat launches dispute settlement procedure against Bosnia and Herzegovina for breaching Large Combustion Plants Directive in the case of Tuzla 4 and Kakanj 5," Energy Community, October 28, 2022
  8. "Bosnia and Herzegovina is not planning new Coal or Gas Power Plants". sarajevotimes.com. July 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. 9.0 9.1 "RECOMMENDATIONS 2/2023 by the Energy Community Secretariat on the Draft integrated National Energy and Climate Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina". /energycommunity-my.sharepoint.com. 26 December 2023. {{cite web}}: line feed character in |title= at position 59 (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. 10.0 10.1 "REVIDOVANI PLAN POSLOVANJA za period 2023. - 2025. godina u dijelu koji se odnosi na 2023. godinu" (PDF). www.epbih.ba. 17 October 2023. {{cite web}}: line feed character in |title= at position 11 (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. 11.0 11.1 "PLAN POSLOVANJA za period 2024. - 2026. godina" (PDF). www.epbih.ba. March 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. 12.0 12.1 "China's CNEEC eyes Bosnia's $584 mln coal-fired unit," Reuters, May 30, 2011
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Dugoročni plan razvoja Elektroprivrede BiH do 2030. sa Strategijskim planom," Electroprivreda Bosne i Hercegovine, May 29, 2014, p. 142
  14. "Unit 8 TPP 'Kakanj,'” Elektroprivreda BiH, accessed May 2014
  15. "Carbon costs for planned coal power plants in the Western Balkans and the risk of stranded assets," Bankwatch, March 29, 2017
  16. "Block 8 Permit," Bosnia Ministry of Environment and Tourism, July 7, 2017
  17. "Bosnia and Herzegovina: FBiH Government to accelerate TPP Tuzla, Banovici projects," SEE Energy News, May 2019
  18. "EPBiH preparing to build another coal power plant – unit 8 in TPP Kakanj," Balkan Green Energy News, December 21, 2021
  19. "General Meeting Adopted Business Plan 2023-2025," EPBIH, December 2022
  20. "BiH's NECP: coal power plants to be shut, 2 GW of renewables installed". balkangreenenergynews.com. April 28, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s draft NECP: The good, the bad and the ugly, Bankwatch, July 20, 2023
  22. "INTEGRIRANI PLAN ZA ENERGIJU I KLIMU BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE," Verzija 7, 2023

Additional data

To access additional data, including an interactive map of coal-fired power stations, a downloadable dataset, and summary data, please visit the Global Coal Plant Tracker on the Global Energy Monitor website.