Electric arc furnace

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Steel Plant Tracker, a project of Global Energy Monitor.

Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking uses steel scrap, Direct reduced iron (DRI) , or a combination of these materials as the primary feedstock. While it is possible to produce 100% recycled steel, with a feedstock of only scrap steel, EAF steelmaking often uses a mixture of scrap and DRI, or even supplemental amounts of pig iron (produced in a blast furnace (BF)).

The EAF is a cylindrical vessel made of heavy steel plates.[1] It uses high voltage electric currents as the primary heat source. When power is fed into the furnace, electricity jumps between the graphite electrodes and they provide the heat needed to melt down steel scrap and iron ore in order to produce crude steel.[2]

Source: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Scrap-based EAF production results in approximately 0.3 tonne CO2/ tonne crude steel[3] , while natural gas-based DRI-EAF production results in approximately 1.4 tonne CO2/ tonne crude steel[3]. Coal can also be used in DRI-EAF production, with average emissions ranging from 1.3-1.8 t CO2/ t crude steel for the COREX/FINEX process and 3.2 t CO2/ t crude steel for the rotary kiln process. Hydrogen-based DRI-EAF production results in an average 0.71 t CO2/ t[3] crude steel, though actual emissions vary widely depending on the production route of the hydrogen producing one tonne of steel through the EAF steelmaking process which requires 9.0 GJ/tonne crude steel[4] of energy on average globally.[5]

Raw Material(s):

  • Steel scrap
  • Iron ore


  • Crude steel


  1. "steel - Electric-arc steelmaking". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-06-29.
  2. Flournoy, Blake (2021). "How Does an Electric ARC Furnace Work?". Hunker.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap – Analysis - IEA". IEA. Retrieved 2021-07-06.
  4. "New Report: How Clean is the U.S. Steel Industry? — Global Efficiency Intelligence". Global Efficiency Intelligence. Retrieved 2021-07-06.
  5. Fan, Zhiyuan; Friedmann, S. Julio (2021-04-07). "Low-carbon production of iron and steel: Technology options, economic assessment, and policy". Joule. 5 (4): 829–862. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2021.02.018. ISSN 2542-4351.

External links

This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Electric arc furnace under the provisions of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Abeckford21 (talk) 23:40, 29 June 2021 (UTC)