Mundra Port

From Global Energy Monitor

Mundra Port in Gujarat is India’s largest port and is operated by Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Ltd. (APSEZ), a subsidiary of Adani Enterprises.

Mundra Port's West Basin Coal Terminal is the world's largest fully mechanized coal import terminal, with a coal handling capacity of 60 mtpa (million tonnes per annum)[1][2][3] and deep draft berths capable of receiving bulk vessels up to 250,000 dwt.[4]

The terminal plays a leading role in bringing in coal from Adani's overseas mines in Indonesia and Australia.[5]


The map below shows the two main facilities at the Mundra Port. The western point on the map shows the location of the coal-handling facilities at Mundra Port. The eastern point shows the container terminal. The port is located in the state of Gujarat, on the north shores of the Gulf of Kutch, about 50 kilometers south of Anjar. The

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Adani is India's largest private multi-port operator. The company's website refers to Mundra Port as its "crown jewel."[6]

Mundra Port's capacity has increased from 50 million metric tons a year in 2011[7] to 200 million tons in 2014, and the port has achieved new records for cargo handling and pace of growth in recent years, becoming the first Indian port to accommodate capesize vessels[8], the first to handle 100 million tons of cargo in a single year (FY 2013-14)[9] and the first to handle over 150,000 tons of coal in a single day.[10] In 2013, Mundra Port surpassed publicly owned Kandla Port, 60km to the northeast, to become India's largest port by tonnage handled.[11]

In FY2020-21, Mundra Port handled a total of 144 million tonnes of cargo, the most of any port in India. It also surpassed Jawaharlal Nehru Port as the largest container port in India. Mundra Port was responsible for nearly 60% of the total cargo handled by Adani in that year. Adani's 2021 Annual Report lists a total capacity of 246 million tonnes for the Mundra Port. It describes Mundra as the "world’s largest coal import terminal," but does not list the port's coal-handling capacity, nor does it provide coal-handling volumes for recent years.[12]


The Port of Mundra is also a special economic zone. Incorporated in 1998 as Gujarat Adani Port Limited (GAPL), the company began operating in 2001. The Mundra Special Economic Zone was incorporated in 2003 and was merged with GAPL in 2006. The combined company was renamed "Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited" and is India’s first multi-product port-based special economic zone (SEZ). Mundra port plans to develop a coal-import terminal at Vishakhapatnam in southern India.[13]

According to the New York Times, billionaire Gautam Adani of Adani Enterprises spent a decade assembling tracts of land into a special economic zone and transformed Mundra into India’s biggest private port. Adani then used the port for a coal "global expansion." He acquired mining rights in Indonesia, bought two cargo ships (with two more on order as of July 2011), and bought a coal mine and Abbot Point port in Australia.[5][14]

Coal plants

The Mundra Thermal Power Project was conceived for the captive consumption of the Mundra Port.[15] The 4620 MW, consisting of 4 units of 330 MW and 5 units of 660 MW, became fully operational in 2012.

The Mundra Port also provides coal for the nearby 4,000 MW Tata Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project.[16]

Adani buys Australia coal mines and Abbot Point Terminal

In May 2011, Mundra Port & Special Economic Zone Ltd. (owned by Adani Enterprises, and later rebranded as Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone, Ltd.[17]) secured a $2 billion deal to lease Australia's Abbot Point Coal Terminal for 99 years, more than doubling the company's overall cargo-handling capacity. The deal will enable Adani Enterprises to transport coal from Australia to India. The Abbot Point Coal Terminal, a coal-export facility which is expanding its capacity to 50 million tons a year in 2011, is located in northern Queensland, close to Adani's coal mines in the Galilee basin.[18]

The expansion may cost as much as A$600 million ($653 million) and take about three years. In 2009-10, about 17 million tons of coal was transported through Abbot Point. The Mundra deal could eventually make Abbot Point the largest coal port in the world, handling as much as 300 million tons to 400 million tons a year.[18]

The Adani Group also bought Linc Energy Ltd.'s coal mines for $2.7 billion in 2010 and plans to invest A$6.9 billion ($7.5 billion) to develop the Galilee basin coal mines and related infrastructure in Queensland state. More than half of India's power-generation capacity of 173.6 gigawatts is based on thermal coal, and the country aims to add 163 GW capacity through March 2017. But the country's demand for coal is outstripping its domestic reserves, so companies are seeking to import coal or acquire coal mines overseas.[18]

Project Details

  • Operator: Adani Enterprises
  • Location: Gujarat, India
  • Annual Capacity (Tonnes): 60 million (coal), 264 million (all cargo combined)
  • Status: Operating
  • Type: Imports
  • Coal Source: Indonesia and Australia

Articles and resources


  1. "Ports" India Brand Equity Foundation, September 2017.
  2. "Coal: Mundra" Adani website, accessed February 2018.
  3. "Mundra Port sets a new record in coal handling in India" Adani media release, accessed February 2018.
  4. "Mundra Port makes history by handling the largest bulk carrier to call on West Coast of India" Adani media release, December 4, 2014.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Jim Yardley and Vikas Bajaj, "Billionaires’ Rise Aids India, and the Favor Is Returned" NY Times, July 26, 2011.
  6. "About Us" Adani website, accessed February 2015.
  7. Eric Yep, "Mundra Port Wins Bid for Australia Coal Terminal" Wall Street Journal, May 3, 2011.
  8. "Chinamax ships seen carrying India coal in few years" Reuters, March 9, 2011.
  9. "Adani's Mundra Port crosses 100 MT mark cargo handling in FY14" Business Standard, March 31, 2014.
  10. "Mundra Port handles record coal cargo of over 1.5 LT in a day" The Economic Times, September 12, 2013.
  11. "How Mundra overtook Kandla to become largest port by tonnage" The Economic Times, August 1, 2013.
  12. Integrated Annual Report 2020-21, Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone, Ltd., 2021
  13. "Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited" Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited Website, accessed May 2011.
  14. "Adani has made some very 'power'ful moves". 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
  15. "Adani power synchronizes country's 1st super critical unit". 2010-12-23.
  16. Geoff Law, Four new coal blocks feed Adani’s ‘deadly addiction’ to coal, Adani Watch, Aug. 31, 2021
  17. Virendra Pandit, Mundra Port co is now Adani Ports and SEZ Ltd, Business Line, Jan. 9, 2012
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Eric Yep, "Mundra Port Wins Bid for Australia Coal Terminal" Wall Street Journal, May 3, 2011.

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