Singapore and fossil gas

From Global Energy Monitor
This article is part of the Global Energy Monitor coverage of fossil gas

Singapore has a population of 5.9 million.[1] After contracting in 2020 due to COVID-19, Singapore's GDP growth was recorded at 7.614% in 2021.[2]

Singapore is largely dependent on imported fuel for its energy needs. Gas was first imported into the country to replace oil in the power generation sector. By 2013, gas had almost entirely replaced oil.[3]

Fossil Gas in the Fuel Mix

Total gas consumption was 13.4 bcm in 2021 as compared to 12.6 in 2020.[4] Approximately 85.3% of total gas supply was used for power generation in 2021.[5] The remainder was distributed between end-users, including the industrial sector (89.7%), the commerce & services sector (5.8%), and households (4.2%). [5]

Singapore generated 55.8 TWh of electricity in 2021[5], of which 94.95% was produced using gas, 0.98% through other petroleum products, and the remaining 4% through other sources. [6] Under the Singapore Green Plan 2030 and other energy transition initiatives, the country has been gradually transitioning away from oil-powered electricity and toward gas since early 2000s. Gas remains one of the key 'switches' identified and pursued to transform the national energy supply. [7]

For its first National Determined Contribution (NDC), Singapore set a goal to reduce absolute greenhouse gas emissions to 65 MtCO2e by around 2030. This goal was updated in November 2022 to target an absolute reduction to 60 MtCO2e before 2030.[8]

Fossil Gas Production, Imports, and Transportation

Singapore has no domestic gas production or indigenous gas reserves.[9]

Of the 13.4 bcm of fossil gas consumed in the country in 2021, 5.1 bcm were from LNG imports and 9.1 bcm were imported via pipelines from Indonesia (7.2 bcm) and Malaysia (2.0 bcm).[4] LNG was mainly imported from Australia (3 bcm), United States (0.7 bcm), Egypt (0.3 bcm) and Angola (0.3 bcm). [4]

Until LNG imports began in 2013, all gas was imported via pipeline from Indonesia and Malaysia.[3] The Natuna pipeline and Sumatra pipeline, with a combined total annual capacity of 8.3 bcm, are used to import gas from Indonesia. Current gas contracts with Indonesia include 3.37 bcm Annual Contract Quantity (ACQ) via the Natuna pipeline and a 3.65 bcm ACQ via the Sumatra pipeline.[3]

In November 2019, Indonesia's Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources announced that in order to meet their own domestic gas demand Indonesia would stop supplying gas to Singapore from the Sumatra pipeline once the contract expires in 2023. [10] However, in October 2022, Minister for Energy and Mineral Resources Mr. Arifin Tasrif said that the government had decided to continue supplying gas to Singapore from South Sumatra for another five years after the contract expires in 2023. [11] The existing contract for gas supply from the Natuna pipeline is set to expire in 2028.[11][12]

The Singapore LNG Terminal began operations in May 2013 with an initial capacity of 3.5 MTPA and two storage tanks. The capacity was increased to 6 MTPA in January 2014 with the addition of a third tank and other regasification facilities. In March 2014, a secondary jetty was added. In 2018, a fourth storage tank and additional regasification facilities were added, which made the overall throughput capacity approximately 11 MTPA. [13]

There are two separate domestic gas pipeline networks in Singapore. Town gas is mainly used for cooking and heating by residential and commercial customers. A separate gas pipeline network is used for electricity generation and industrial feedstock.[14]

Government Agencies and other Key Players in Gas Sector

The Energy Market Authority oversees the Singapore gas industry and serves as an independent regulator of the gas and electricity industries.[3]

PowerGas is the gas transporter and owns both the town gas and gas pipelines in the country. [13]


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  11. 11.0 11.1 "Indonesia to continue supplying natural gas to S'pore after contract expires in 2023: Minister". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2023-02-04.
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