Philippines and coal
|This article is part of the Global Energy Monitor coverage of coal and power industry data|
The Philippines is a small coal producer with a number of coal-fired power stations. In 2019, it produced 15.3 million tonnes.
|Category||Reserve Classification||Quantity||Units||Data Year|
|BGR Estimate||Reserves||450||million tonnes||2019|
|BGR Estimate||Resources||1,770||million tonnes||2019|
|Geological Survey||Reserves||470||million tonnes||2015|
|Geological Survey||Resources||2390||million tonnes||2015|
|Commercial Reserves||Reserves||million tonnes|
|Commercial Resources||Resources||million tonnes|
The U.S. Geological Service reports that in 2007 "production of coal was 3.72 million metric tons (Mt) compared with 2.53 Mt reported in 2006 (table 1). The increase in coal production was attributable principally to high demand in both the local and the world markets as the result of increases in oil prices".
The Philippine Department of Energy reports that the largest coal producer in 2005 was the Semirara Mining Corporation (SMC) which produced approximately 92% of the total. Smaller mining operations were based on deposits in Cebu, Zamboanga Sibuguey, Albay, Surigao and Negros Provinces.
The Philippine Department of Energy estimates that in 2005 coal-fired power stations accounted for 3,967 MW of the electricity generated in the country, representing approximately 27% of the total. In addition the cement sector accounted for approximately 20% of the country's coal consumption.
South Cotabato bans open pit mining
In April 2011, South Cotabato agreed to an ordinance that would ban open pit mining in the region. Energy Secretary Jose Rene D. Almendras that the ban would hinder efforts to improve Mindanao’s power supply, including San Miguel Corp's proposed plans for a 750MW plant in the province, saying it could be affected if the coal for the plant is extracted using the strip method, which is considered open-pit mining. San Miguel brought in May 2010 three coal miners operating in Mindanao to supply the plant: Bonanza Energy Resources, Inc., Sultan Mining and Energy Development Corp. and Daguma Coal and Agro Industrial, Inc. Daguma has reserves that stretch from Sultan Kudarat to South Cotabato. Asked how the impending enforcement of the ban in South Cotabato could affect his company’s power plans in the province, San Miguel President Ramon S. Ang said it "will still build in South Cotabato." 
Proposed power stations
Columns may be sorted by clicking on the headers.
|Batangas Bay power station||Batangas Bay power station||Magellan Utilities Dev Corp||MCHC and GPU||300||Shelved||Calabarzon|
|Cadiz City power station||Cadiz City power station||North Negros Energy Power Corp||Asia Pacific Energy Resources Ventures||150||Announced||Negros Occidental|
|Calaca power station expansion Unit 3||Calaca power station||SLPGC plant||SEM-Calaca Power Corp||DMCI Power Corp.||150||Construction||Calabarzon|
|Calaca power station expansion Unit 4||Calaca power station||SLPGC plant||SEM-Calaca Power Corp||DMCI Power Corp.||150||Construction||Calabarzon|
|Calaca power station expansion Unit 5||Calaca power station||SLPGC plant||SEM-Calaca Power Corp||DMCI Power Corp.||150||Pre-permit development||Calabarzon|
|Calaca power station expansion Unit 6||Calaca power station||SLPGC plant||SEM-Calaca Power Corp||DMCI Power Corp.||150||Pre-permit development||Calabarzon|
|Concepcion power station Unit 1||Concepcion power station||Palm Thermal Consolidated Holdings Corp||Ayala Corp||135||Construction||Iloilo|
|Concepcion power station Unit 2||Concepcion power station||Palm Thermal Consolidated Holdings Corp||Ayala Corp||135||Construction||Iloilo|
|Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp) Unit 1||Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp)||San Miguel Corporation||150||Pre-permit development||Davao Occidental|
|Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp) Unit 2||Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp)||San Miguel Corporation||150||Pre-permit development||Davao Occidental|
|Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp) Unit 3||Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp)||San Miguel Corporation||300||Pre-permit development||Davao Occidental|
|Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp) Unit 4||Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp)||San Miguel Corporation||300||Pre-permit development||Davao Occidental|
|Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp) Unit 5||Davao Power Plant (San Miguel Corp)||San Miguel Corporation||300||Pre-permit development||Davao Occidental|
|Davao Power Plant (Thermal South) Unit 1||Davao Power Plant (Therma South)||Binugao power station or Davao Therma||ThermSouth||Aboitiz Group||150||Construction||Davao del Sur|
|Davao Power Plant (Thermal South) Unit 2||Davao Power Plant (Therma South)||Binugao power station or Davao Therma||ThermSouth||Aboitiz Group||150||Construction||Davao del Sur|
|General Santos SMEC||General Santos power station||SMC Global Power Holdings||San Miguel Corp||300||South Cotabato|
|Isabel Copper Plant||Isabel Copper Plant||Phil Assoc Smelt & Ref (PASAR)||200||Leyte|
|Isabela power station||Isabela power station||PNOC Exploration Corporation||100||Announced||Isabela|
|Limay TPP Phase 1||Limay power station||SMC Consolidated Power Corp||300||Pre-permit development||Bataan|
|Limay TPP Phase 2||Limay power station||SMC Consolidated Power Corp||300||Pre-permit development||Bataan|
|Limay TPP Phase 3||Limay power station||SMC Consolidated Power Corp||300||Pre-permit development||Bataan|
|Mariveles Power Plant Unit 1||Mariveles Power Plant||GNPower||300||Operating||Bataan|
|Mariveles Power Plant Unit 2||Mariveles Power Plant||GNPower||300||Operating||Bataan|
|Mariveles Power Plant Unit 3||Mariveles Power Plant||GNPower||600||Pre-permit development||Bataan|
|Mariveles Power Plant Unit 4||Mariveles Power Plant||GNPower||600||Pre-permit development||Bataan|
|Masinloc power station Unit 3||Masinloc power station||AES Masinloc Power Partners Co||300||Permitted||Zambales|
|Masinloc power station Unit 4||Masinloc power station||AES Masinloc Power Partners Co||300||Permitted||Zambales|
|Mindanao Steag power station Unit 3||Mindanao Steag power station||STEAG State Power||150||Cancelled||Misamis Oriental|
|Misamis Oriental power station Unit 1||Misamis Oriental power station||FDC Misimas Power Corp||Filinvest Development Corp||135||Construction||Misamis Oriental|
|Misamis Oriental power station Unit 2||Misamis Oriental power station||FDC Misimas Power Corp||Filinvest Development Corp||135||Construction||Misamis Oriental|
|Misamis Oriental power station Unit 3||Misamis Oriental power station||FDC Misimas Power Corp||Filinvest Development Corp||135||Permitted||Misamis Oriental|
|Pagbilao power station Unit 3||Pagbilao power station||Team Energy Corp||Tokyo Electric||400||Quezon|
|Panay Expansion||Panay power station||Ilio City PEDC||Panay Energy Development Corporation||150||Construction||Iloilo|
|Panay KEPCO diesel conversion||Panay power plant (Kepco)||KEPCO Philippines Corp.||SPC Power||100||Cancelled||Iloilo|
|PsagCorp power station Unit 1||PsagCorp power station||Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte, Lanao Coal||GN Power||Ayala Corp||135||Pre-permit development||Lanao del Norte|
|PsagCorp power station Unit 2||PsagCorp power station||Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte, Lanao Coal||GN Power||Ayala Corp||135||Pre-permit development||Lanao del Norte|
|PsagCorp power station Unit 3||PsagCorp power station||Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte, Lanao Coal||GN Power||Ayala Corp||135||Pre-permit development||Lanao del Norte|
|Puting Bato power station Unit 1||Puting Bato power station||Calaca SLTEC||South Luzon Thermal Energy Corp||AC Energy Holdings (Ayala) and Trans-Asia Oil and Energy Development Corp (PHINMA)||135||Construction||Batangas|
|Puting Bato power station Unit 2||Puting Bato power station||Calaca SLTEC||South Luzon Thermal Energy Corp||AC Energy Holdings (Ayala) and Trans-Asia Oil and Energy Development Corp (PHINMA)||135||Construction||Batangas|
|Quezon power station Unit 2||Quezon power station||Quezon Power Philippines||500||Pre-permit development||Quezon|
|Sibuguey power station||Sibuguey power station||Philippine National Oil Company||100||Pre-permit development||Zamboanga Sibugay|
|Kamanga power station Unit 1||Kamanga power station||Southern Mindanao Power Station or SM200||Sarangani Energy Corporation||Alsons Consolidated and Toyota||105||Construction||Sarangani|
|Kamanga power station Unit 2||Kamanga power station||Southern Mindanao Power Station or SM200||Sarangani Energy Corporation||Alsons Consolidated and Toyota||105||Construction||Sarangani|
|Sual power station Unit 3||Sual power station||SMC Global Power Holdings||San Miguel Corp.||600||Cancelled||Pangasinan|
|Subic power station Unit 1||Subic power station||RP Energy Power Station||Meralco Powergen Corp (MPG)||Manila Electric||300||Construction on hold||Zambales|
|Subic power station Unit 2||Subic power station||RP Energy Power Station||Meralco Powergen Corp (MPG)||Manila Electric||300||Construction on hold||Zambales|
|Subic Freeport-2 (KEPCO)||Subic Bay power station (Kepco)||KEPCO Philippines Corp.||Korea Electric||200||Cancelled||Zambales|
|Sultan Kudarat power station||Sultan Kudarat power station||Sultan Energy Philippines||San Miguel Corp||200||Cancelled||Sultan Kudarat|
|Therma Visayas Energy Project||Therma Visayas Energy Project||AboitizPower||Aboitiz Group||300||Pre-permit development||Cebu|
|Zamboanga power station||Zamboanga power station||San Ramon Zamboanga power station, ZAM CFPP||San Ramon Power Inc||Alsons Consolidated Resources, Inc.||105||Pre-permit development||Zamboanga City|
Coal-fired power stations financed by international public investment institutions
Coal-fired power stations financed by international public investment institutions include:
- Calaca power station, Philippines
- Masinloc power station, Philippines
- Mindanao Steag power station, Philippines
- Pagbilao power station, Philippines
- Quezon power station, Philippines
- Sual power station, Philippines
Coal bed methane
The Philippine Department of Energy reports that in 2005 a joint project with the United States Geological Survey produced a report titled Assessment of Philippine Coal Bed Methane. The Philipppine Department of Energy stated that the report "identified several coals, from lignite to semi-anthracite, in the country that possess large gas storage capacity compared with coals in known coalfields in the US. With the gas holding capacity of coals in the Philippines coalfields known, a detailed study was proposed to determine the amount of Coalbed Methane (CBM) resource and prove recoverable reserve potential. Coalbed methane is an emerging natural gas resource that has evolved worldwide as an alternative clean-burning fossil fuel."
As of 2012, environmental conservationists are seeking issuance of an environmental protection order for the construction of coal ash dumps away from water bodies and the submission of reports on disposal of coal ash. The petitioners include the Philippine Earth Justice Center Inc., Central Visayas Farmers’ Development Center, Central Visayas Fishefolks Development Center, and concerned citizens of the cities of Toledo and Naga. The claim is aimed at Kepco-Salcon Power Corp. (KSPC) and Salcon Power Corp. (SPC), owners and operators of two coal-fired power plants in Naga City, as well as Toledo Power Corp., Cebu Energy Development Corp., and Global Business Power Corp.
On August 17, 2010, Judge Yap issued a 72-hour temporary environmental protection order (Tepo) on the dumping of coal ash outside the premises of coal-fired power plants in the cities of Naga and Toledo. In March 2011, the Tepo was extended indefinitely, as owners and operators were told to dump coal ash only in court-designated areas. The order was issued after the court inspected the coal-fired power plants, their disposal facilities, and other dumping sites identified by the petitioners, which are now seeking a permanent environmental protection order against the power companies to ensure safe coal waste disposal.
Coal ship destroys coral reefs in Philippines
On May 8, 2011, a ship loaded with coal ran aground and destroyed a large portion of a marine sanctuary in the southern Philippines, damaging coral reefs in the Sarangani Bay. The Panamanian-registered ship with 21 Filipino crew members was headed to India from Australia carrying 65,000 tons of coal. An investigation showed the ship’s crew miscalculated its path and sailed into shallow waters.
Opposition to coal
On its website, the Philippine Department of Energy rhetorically asks "How do you plan to address mounting opposition on coal?" In response it states that "in order to address environmental concerns, the DOE shall encourage operation of coal power plants that utilize clean coal technologies. There will be efforts to educate the public on the real impact of and the available mitigating measures for coal operations."
Citizen Actions Against Coal
April 2010: Protests Against Coal Mining
In April 2010, local community members in Cantilan, Surigao del Sur, led by Mayor Tomasa Guardo, led a protest action opposing mining activities in the area by Marcventures Mining and Development Corp. (MMDC), setting up a picket line adjacent to the road leading to the mining. The protest action in Cantilan is among several protest actions occurring around the country calling for a ban on large-scale mining in the country. Protesters believe that mining in Important Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) such as Mount Hilong-hilong, which covers the forest in Cantilan, is detrimental to the diminishing wildlife in Surigao del Sur.
Earth Day 2010 protests against coal
[File:300vera earthday.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.75|Mindanao State Univ students dressed as Na'vi from the film Avatar march in Sarangani, Philippines]] On Earth Day 2010, 4,000 environmentalists protested in solidarity with rallies in Tampakan, South Cotabato, and Maasim, Sarangani, against the proposed Kamanga power station by CONAL Holdings, and mining activities in these provinces.
Protesters in Sarangani included leaders of religious groups, fishermen, indigenous people, and foreign divers who said the project will destroy the waters of Maasim, because of the area's ecologically important coral reefs. Mindanao State University students dressed as Na'vi from the film Avatar marched toward the fenced property of the proposed plant site. The protesters and media were refused entry to the CONAL Community Development Office. A slight commotion occurred when four unidentified men suspected to be working for CONAL were seen with cameras, video recorders and handheld radios at the rally.
Elson Helsa of Maasim Peoples Coalition on Climate Change (MP3C) expressed fears CONAL might finance local candidates who supported the setting up of the plant. Sarangani Gov. Miguel Dominguez, Maasim Mayor Aniceto Lopez Jr., and Kiamba Mayor Rommel Falgui announced their support to the project during a community consultation held in 2009.
In Tampakan, the protest started with a prayer rally followed by a press conference calling for a stop to the mining activities of XTRATA-Sagitarious Mines Inc. The protesters demanded the pullout of XTRATA-SMI and called for sustainable development, the protection of watersheds and respect for indigenous people’s rights.
May 2010: Manila Coal Plant protesters injured
In May 2010, a Greenpeace activist participating in a peaceful protest against a coal power plant outside Manila was beaten by local plant security, who drew weapons and fired warning shots at people armed with nothing but a banner. Four other Greenpeace activists were hospitalized after having stones thrown at them.
November 2010: Sarangani residents oppose coal-fired power plant
In November 2010, with the aid of Greenpeace activists a 75-boat flotilla and a human banner with an estimated 800 participants were formed in the town of Massim, Saranganito, a Philippines province. The group gathered to protest the development of a proposed 200-megawatt coal-fired power plant of Alcantara Group-led Conal Holdings Corp.
March 2011: Davao City residents oppose plant
In March 2011, residents of Binugao village in the Toril district asked the city government to reject the proposal of Aboitiz Corp. to put a coal-fired power plant in the village. In early March, the city council approved on first reading the proposed project and forwarded it to the committee on energy, the committee on environment, the committee on health, and the committee on trade and commerce. The four committees were tasked to conduct public consultations on the proposal. Vice Mayor Rodrigo Duterte has been very vocal about his endorsement of the proposed 300-megawatt coal-fired power plant, even before the conduct of any study. His daughter, Mayor Sara Duterte, said she was personally opposed to the project although she would go with the decision of the people.
Dr. Jean Lindo, one of the convenors of the No to Coal Davao, said the Aboitiz’s statement that the project would not pollute the environment was “a total statement of fallacy and deception” and “There is no such thing as clean coal." A petition submitted to the city council by those opposing the project states that 10 coal-fired power plants have been set up all over the country. They said "We, as Filipinos and energy consumers, have a right to demand for clean, renewable and affordable sources of energy without compromising our right to a healthful environment and genuine development,” the petition said.
August 2011: Protest against proposed Subic Bay plant
A protest is planned for August 29, 2011, against a proposed 600-megawatt coal power plant inside Subic Bay Freeport, citing pollution and health problems as the main concern. Alex Hermoso, lead convener of the Olongapo-Zambales Civil Society Network, said that they are expecting more than 2,000 participants to attend the protest action. The Subic Bay Freeport Chamber of Commerce (SBFCC) has been split in its opinion regarding the coal power plant project, with members of the SBFCC whose business is mostly related to tourism largely opposing the project. Citizens say the project has been pushed through without social acceptability: “The network of oppositors, particularly the multi-sectoral Olongapo-Zambales Civil Society Network, affirms its stand against the coal-fired power plant and will never raise the white flag. The proponents and supporters of the coal-fired power Ppant have not yet seen the real campaign against it.” The local government of Olongapo City and the Zambales Provincial Government have both approved a resolution opposing the coal power plant.
Articles and resources
- BGR Energy Study 2019 - Data and Developments in German and Global Energy Supplies (23), 200 p, Hannover, Germany
- Department of Energy, Philippines, Coal Overview, 2015.
- Yolanda Fong-Sam, 'The Mineral Industry of the Philippines". U.S. Geological Survey, September 2009.
- "Coal...", Department of Energy, May 2010.
- "Energy resources: Coal", Philippine Department of Energy website, accessed may 2010.
- "S. Cotabato’s prohibition on open-pit mine method worries Energy department" Business World, April 19, 2011.
- "Coal Fired Plants Financed by International Public Investment Institutions since 1994", Appendix A in Foreclosing the Future: Coal, Climate and International Public Finance: Investment in coal-fired power plants hinders the fight against global warming, Environmental Defense, April 2009.
- "Environmentalists, power firms explore conditions on coal ash dumping" Sun Star, Jan. 11, 2012.
- "Ship carrying coal runs aground, destroys coral reef in Philippine marine sanctuary" Washington Post, May 12, 2011.
- Philippine Department of Energy website, 'Coal Statistics", Philippine Department of Energy website, accessed May 2010.
- Philippine Department of Energy website, "Coal Statistics: Coal importation by country", Philippine Department of Energy website, accessed May 2010.
- Roslyn Arayata, "Climate change, mining and Mimaropa" Manila Times, May 2, 2010.
- "Rallies vs coal plant, mining mark Earth Day in Soccskargen" Yahoo! News, April 26, 2010.
- "Activists attacked in Philippines global warming protest" Greenpeace International, May 21, 2010.
- "Residents oppose coal-fired power plant project" Business World, November 21, 2010.
- Jeffrey Tupas, "Davao City residents oppose building of coal-fired power plant" Inquirer Politics, March 10, 2011.
- "Protest action set in Olongapo for Subic coal plant" Sun Star, Aug. 28, 2011.
- "True Cost of Coal in the Philippines," Greenpeace, May 2014
- Thousands to protest against mining, deadly energy projects, Piplinks, May 3, 2010
- ANTI-COAL GROUPS STORMED PROVINCIAL CAPITOL OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, PHILIPPINES TO CONDEMN THE PROPOSED 20MW COAL FIRED POWER PLANT IN THE PROVINCE, 350 Philippines, December 16, 2010