South Africa and coal
|This article is part of the CoalSwarm coverage of South Africa|
South Africa is the fifth largest hard coal producer in the world and a major exporter of coal into the world market. It is also heavily dependent on coal for power generation and is aiming to rapidly expand its coal-based generation capacity. It is also a major exporter of power to utilities in neighboring countries and directly to some major individual customers in Mozambique and Namibia.
South Africa, which is estimated to have produced 244 million tonnes of coal in 2006, is ranked as the world's fifth largest hard coal producer, behind China, the USA, India and Australia. In 2005 it was estimated that coal-fired power stations accounted for approximately 93% of South Africa's electricity production and were the dominant domestic coal consumer. Approximately one-third of domestic coal consumption is used by Sasol as the source for synthetic fuel and chemicals production. South Africa has also become a major player in the global coal trade, exporting an estimated 69 million tonnes in 2006. The bulk of this is exported to Germany, Spain and Japan.
According to Eskom, the publicly owned electricity utility, 53% of domestic consumption is used for electricity generation with a further "12% for metallurgical industries (Iscor) and 2% for domestic heating and cooking." In a brief review of alternatives to coal, Eskom confines its considerations to major centralised power station options of gas, hydro and nuclear. It argues that domestic gas and hydro resources are limited, importing hydro power from the Zaire River basin could be unreliable due to political instability but is a little more up-beat about its as yet unproven pebble-bed nuclear reactors. No other options were considered. Instead it places its faith in "clean coal" technologies. "There are many existing and emerging clean coal technologies that will enable the production, processing, conveyance and utilisation of coal in a more environmentally compatible manner," it states.
South Africa is also a significant exporter of power to neighbouring countries and a small number of major consumers. In March 2010 the Minister for Public Enterprises, Barbara Hogan, told parliament that South Africa exported approximately 1 200GWh of power per month, representing 5.95% for 2009. She also explained that power is also imported and that the net exports was 0.73% of the total electricity available for distribution. Power is exported under contracts with national electricity utilities in Botswana (Botswana Power Corporation, Namibia (NamPower), Lesotho (the Lesotho Electricity Company LEC), Swaziland (Swaziland Electricity Company - SEC) and occasionally to Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority - ZESA) and Zambia (Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation ZESCO). These exports are done as part of the South African Power Pool agreement and their "non-firm agreements with Eskom", she said. Hogan also explained that electricity is also supplied to the Motraco aluminium smelter in Mozambique, Skorpion Zinc for its zinc mine in Namibia and Namdeb for its diamond mine in Namibia.
As of 2011, South Africa accounts for over 40 percent of Africa’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning, and about 1% of the world's total. Most of South Africa's CO2 emissions are from use of coal, and overall, CO2 emissions have increased by about 30% over the past decade.
Government Energy Policy
In 2004 the South African Cabinet approved a total five-year expansion plan costing R93 billion with the publicly owned electricity company Eskom funding R84 billion of that. Subsequently, Eskom plans to spend R150 billion in the five-year period to 2011-2012 in order to cater for the government's target gross domestic product growth rate of 6%. "Under the revised plan, we will deliver an additional 22 000 megawatts (MW) by 2017," states Eskom.
Eskom proposes that it would meet the proposed massive expansion by a mix of new coal, gas, nuclear power stations as well as some demand side management and renewables. The utility states that, as of November 2007, there are currently 11,941 megawatts of plants in the "project execution phase". Of this it reported that 1577 megawatts has already been commissioned. To help fund the cost of the massive construction programme, Eskom has been granted permission to increase its electricity tariff by 27.5 percent in the 2008/09 financial year.
Other "in execution" generation projects that are as yet uncompleted comprise:
- the construction of six new coal-fired 6-900 megawatt units (for between 3,600 megawatts and 5,400 megawatts capacity);
- the recommissioning of previously mothballed power stations providing 3,600 megawatts (see list below);
- the construction of the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme hydro scheme with four 333 megawatt turbines (for 1332 megawatts of installed capacity) to provide increased peaking capacity;
- the construction of fourteen 150 megawatt open cycle gas units for a total of 2,100 megawatts installed capacity;
- a 100 megawatt wind farm.
Rapid domestic demand for electricity prompted the South African utility, Eskom, to cut back power exports to neighboring countries. Eskom power exports to Botswana have been cut back and will cease entirely in 2012 when its contract expires. The World bank said this had the spillover effect of prompting the Botswana Power Corporation, a government owned utility, to build the Morupule B power station. Eskom also exported power to Swaziland, Lesotho, and Namibian utilities as well as having agreements with individual customers in Mozambique and Namibia.
Eskom's contracts with other countries are of longer duration than Botswana's. The contract with Namibia runs through to June 2017, while the contract with Swaziland runs through to December 2024. The contract with Lesotho is "indefinite". The contract for the Motraco aluminum smelter runs from December 1997 through to December 2025, the Skorpion zinc mines from August 2000 through to January 2018 and Namdeb from October 1986 for an indefinite period.
Access and pricing
According to a 2011 BankTrack report, 25% of South Africans have no access to electricity, and 33% have only limited access. While poor urban households are forced to spend around 20% of their income on energy, Apartheid-era “special pricing agreements” give companies lower guaranteed rates. After the approval of the Medupi project in April 2010, electricity prices for households went up 137% by 2011, forcing many poor people to curtail electricity use or drop off the grid. Eskom has announced additional rises of at least 25% to finance Kusile.
According to the Sierra Club, the 38 largest corporations in South Africa use about 40 percent of the electricity from the grid, whereas South Africa’s poor use less than 5 percent.
South African Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan announced in his 2012 budget speech that a carbon fee will be implemented in the 2013-2014 financial year. The proposal is to implement the carbon fee at a fairly low level, and then define an increasing price path over time. A carbon tax of $16 per ton is expected (South African Rand 120 per ton of CO2e) in 2013, with annual increases of 10 per cent through 2019.
Existing Coal-Fired Power Stations
Existing Eskom power stations are:
- Arnot Power Station: 2,140 MW installed capacity comprising 4 X 350 MW units and 2 X 370MW units. The power station is located at Middelburg, Mpumalanga; Eskom plans to commission 60 megawatts upgrades in 2008, a further 60 megawatts in each of 2009 and a further 30 megawatts in 2010.
- Camden Power Station: 1,580 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 200 MW units and 2 X 190 MW units. The power station is located at Ermelo, Mpumalanga. In 2007 Eskom recommissioned 390 megawatts and plans to recommission a further 390 megawatts in 2008. The station is now online.
- Duvha Power Station: 3,600 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 600 MW units.The power station is located at Witbank, Mpumalanga
- Hendrina Power Station: 2,000 MW installed capacity comprising 10 X 200 MW units. The power station is located at Hendrina, Mpumalanga.
- Kendal Power Station: 4,116 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 686 MW units. The power station is located at Witbank, Mpumalanga.
- Kriel Power Station: 3,000 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 500 MW units. The power station is located at Kriel, Mpumalanga.
- Lethabo Power Station: 3,708 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 618 MW units. The power station is located at Sasolburg, Free State.
- Majuba Power Station: 4,110 MW installed capacity comprising 3 X 657 MW units and 3 X 713 MW units. The power station is located at Volksrust, Mpumalanga.
- Matimba Power Station: 3,990 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 665 MW units. The power station is located at Ellisras, Northern Province.
- Matla Power Station: 3,600 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 600 MW units. The power station is located at Kriel, Mpumalanga.
- Tutuka Power Station: 3,654 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 609 MW units. The power station is located at Standerton, Mpumalanga.
Currently Mothballed coal-fired stations being recommissioned
The following coal-fired power stations were mothballed in 1990 but are currently in the process of being recommissioned, which started in 2005.
- Grootvlei Power Station: 1 200 MW installed capacity comprising 6 X 200 MW units. The power station is located at Balfour, Mpumalanga. Eskom plans to recommission 585 megawatts in each of 2008 and 2009; 
- Komati Power Station: 1 000 MW installed capacity comprising 5 X 100 MW units and 4 X 125 MW units. The power station is located at Middelburg, Mpumalanga. Eskom plans to recommission 120 megawatts in 2008, 240 megawatts in 2009, 320 megawatts in 2010 and 285 megawatts in 2001;
New Coal-Fired Power Stations
As part of its "new build" expansion plan, Eskom plans on building two new coal-fired power stations. These are:
- the 4,788 megawatt Medupi Power Station is proposed to be progressively commissioned from 2013 (803 megawatts in 2012, 1,596 megawatts in 2013, 798 megwatts in 2014 and a further 1,596 in 2015.
- the 3,212 megawatt Kusile Power Station is proposed to be progressively commissioned from 2012 (798 megawatts in 2013, 1,606 megawatts in 2014 and a further 803 megwatts in 2015.
See the Eskom article for details of the utility's gas-fired, nuclear and hydro power stations.
In response to a request from Eskom for expressions of interest from private power producers, the Perth, Australia-based energy company, the Aviva Corporation, announced that it had expressed interest in developing the notional Mmamantswe Coal Project in Botswana as a major coal mine with an associated power station.
Coal-fired power stations financed by international public investment institutions
Coal-fired power stations financed by international public investment institutions include:
- Arnot power station, South Africa
- Kelvin power station, South Africa
- Kusile Power Station), South Africa
- Medupi power station, South Africa
Environmentalists Oppose World Bank Loan to Eskom
In late February 2010, climate change activists and concerned individuals from about the world expressed concern that the World Bank would fund new coal-fired power stations proposed by the South African government-owned utility, Eskom. One of the projects is the Medupi power station, a 4800 megawatt plant under construction in Lephalale in the country's northern region of Limpopo.
Groups opposing the project, which includes Climate Justice Now, groundWork and the Federation for a Sustainable Environment, vowed to pressure country directors within the World Bank to vote against the loan and also said they would revive the World Bank "bond boycott" that was launched last decade to end structural adjustment programs and anti-environmental project funded by the Bank.
Inger Andersen, World Bank's director for sustainable development in Africa, said the loan would support the "responsible use of coal as an interim resource for power generation, given lack of viable alternatives". The opposition groups countered, that if granted, the loan would destroy the image the World Bank is portraying of a climate-friendly financier. In order to power the new coal plants, over 40 new mines would have to be opened up in the region. The proposed plants would also increase utility rates to consumers. Large environmental groups such as the Sierra Club have signed on to a petition that opposes the loan.
On March 8, 2010 it was announced that the UK and US threatened to withhold support for a World Bank loan intended to help South Africa build the new coal-fired power station. The UK and US opposed to the loan because they believe it will make it harder for South Africa to deliver emission cuts.
On April 8, 2010 the World Bank voted to approve a $3.75 billion loan as requested by the South African government. The United States abstained from voting on the measure. It was the first World Bank loan to the country since the fall of Apartheid in the mid-1990s.
Critics, however, were not pleased with the World Bank's decision to fund the coal plant, even though the loan had provisions for other energy technologies like wind and solar. "I think it's pretty clear the World Bank is telling the people of South Africa that they're not taking their commitments to alleviating poverty and climate change seriously," said Mark Kresowik, corporate accountability and finance representative for the Sierra Club's 'Beyond Coal' campaign. Other countries that abstained from the vote included the U.K., Netherlands and Italy.
Eskom has been called the "worst polluter" on the continent of Africa. Eskom also accounts for more than 60 percent of all the electricity generated on the continent
Eskom Plant Gets Funding Approval from U.S. Bank for Kusile Power Station
On April, 14, 2011 Black & Veatch Corp. won preliminary approval for $805.6 million in financing from the U.S. Export-Import Bank for a coal-fired power plant in South Africa, a move that drew criticism from environmental groups. Eskom's Kusile Power Station, to be constructed in South Africa's Mpumalanga Province, will include six units and have a total capacity of 4,800 megawatts.
U.S. Congress has 35 days to comment on the deal.
“Ex-Im Bank directors’ decision to support Kusile was made despite their full knowledge of the unacceptable damage the project will cause,” said Sunita Dubey, U.S. representative of Groundwork South Africa, a group opposing Kusile. They “disregarded the impact on people’s health and livelihoods.”
- Mafutha Coal-to-Liquids project; Sasol is undertaking a pre-feasibility study for the project. In its 2009 annual report the company states that the plant would be aimed at the South African liquid fuels market and that "we look forward to working together with our partners, the Industrial Development Corporation and the government, to advance this important initiative."
Major Coal Mines
The U.S. Geological Survey lists the major coal mining operations and their 2005 production levels as being:
- Anglo Coal Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Anglo American plc, Bank, Goedehoop, Isibonelo, Kleinkopje Kriel, Landau, Mafube, New Denmark, New Vaal, and Nooitgedacht Mines which produced 57 million tonnes
- BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa, a wholly owned subsidiary of BHP Billiton, operates a number of coal mines in the Witbank Coalfield, Mpumalanga Province. (BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa was, up until the end of January 2007, known as Ingwe Collieries Ltd.). In the year to June 2008, BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa produced approximately 48 million tonnes of coal for both the export and domestic markets. BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa's mines and projects are:
- Zululand Anthracite Colliery, a wholly owned subsidiary of (BHP Billiton, Zululand Mine, KwaZulu Natal Province which produced 600,000 tonnes of anthracite.
- Sasol Ltd which operates the following mines in Secunda:
Sasol in May 2012 launched a $423 million shaft at its Twistdraai Mine in South Africa to extend the life of the mine beyond 2039. Thubelisha, in South Africa's eastern Mpumalanga province, will produce up to 10.6 million tonnes of coal per year when it reaches full production by 2018. Sasol is the world's top maker of motor fuel from coal
- Continental Coal which operates the Penumbra thermal coal project in South Africa's Ermelo coalfield and will produce 500,000 tonnes
- Eyesizwe Coal (Pty.) Ltd. Arnot, Glisa, Mafube, Matla, and New Clydesdale collieries which produced 25 million tonnes
- Kumba Resources Ltd., 66% owned by Anglo American
- Xstrata plc
- Tweefontein Division (Boschmans, Goedgevonden South Witbank, Waterpan, and Witcons Mines) at Witbank which produced 6.5 million tonnes;
- has a 50% interest in ATC and ATCOM Mines at Witbank which produced 4.1 million tonnes;
- has a 50% interest in Mpumalanga Division (Spitzkop and Tselentis mines at Breyton and Ermelo) which produced 2.9 million tonnes;
- has a 50% interest in iMpunzi Division (Phoenix and Tavistock mines) at Witbank which produced 2.8 million tonnes;
- Anker Holdings
- B.V.Elandsfontein Mine which produced 2.04 million tonnes
- Golfview Mine which produced 1.7 million tonnes
- Kangra Group Pty. Ltd which operates the Savmore and Welgedacht collieries which produced 3 million tonnes;
- Wakefield Investments (Pty.) Ltd. has a 74% interest in the MetorexBankfontein, Lakeside, Leeuwfontein, and Middleburg Townlands Mines which produced 2.3 million tonnes .
- Total Coal SA (Pty.) Ltd which operates the Dorsfontein and Forzando Mines which produced 2 million tonnes
- Graspan Colliery Pty Ltd which operates the Graspan Mine which produced 1.8 million tonnes.
- Kuyasa Mining (Pty.) Ltd operates the Delmas Mine which produced 1.2 million tonnes.
- Forbes Coal owns the Magdalena bituminous and the Aviemore anthracite mines in the KwaZulu Natal province, which have a measured and indicated resource base of 54.2M t bituminous coal.
China's Datong seeking SA coal mines
In November 2010, China's third-largest state-owned producer, Datong Coal Mine Group, said it is seeking coal mines in South Africa and other selected countries (Australia, Indonesia, and Russia), and plans to invest "tens of billions" in the new energy sector as part of its five-year development plan. President Wu Yongping of Datong ‒ the parent of the Shanghai-listed Datong Coal Industry Company Limited ‒ commented: “We are mainly looking at partnerships in these overseas ventures, but we won't rule out developing any mines on our own.”
Eskom calls for 15 new coal mines
In July 2011, Eskom said it would need two-billion tons in new coal supplies to meet the demand of its current and planned coal-fired power stations over their operational lives. Eskom said that about 15 new coal mines, mainly in the Mpumalanga area, would have to come on line in the next two to four years, and that R100-billion would have to be invested in the domestic coal mining industry over the next seven years.
Eskom is working with State-owned logistics company Transnet Freight Rail on the construction of a heavy haul rail link between the Waterberg and existing power stations in Mpumalanga.
As of 2011, South Africa is the world's sixth largest coal producer and fifth largest exporter. In 2009 it produced 247Mt of hard coal, of which 27% was exported. 99% of its exports were thermal coal. Historically the country's largest export operations were owned by Anglo American, BHP Billiton and Xstrata. Richards Bay Coal Terminal in South Africa was once the world's largest coal export terminal. In 2011, coal exports from the terminal was expanded.
In September 2010, South Africa for the first time began selling more coal to Asia than to Europe. South Africa accounted for about 30 percent of India’s thermal coal imports, as shipments in the first eight months of 2010 increased to 13.3 million tons, while China’s purchases increased to 4.7 million tons. Purchases by Asia in the first eight months totaled 29 million tons, while Europe brought in 5.8 million tons. In early January 2011, MMTC, India's largest state-run trading company, announced that India was going to increase its coal imports from South Africa.
In October 2011, South Africa's total exports were 7.4 million tonnes. On average, exports have floated between 4 million and 5 million tonnes a month for the past three years. Some South African coal companies export their coal product through Mozambique's southern Maputo port where they can get allocation not available at South Africa's own Richards Bay Coal Terminal and which is closer to their mines in the area of Witbank.
As of 2011, more than 80 percent of South Africa's coal is mined in the Mpumulanga Province.
The map at the bottom of this page shows the existing and proposed coal terminals in Southern Africa, including both South Africa and Mozambique. In Mozambique, only Beira Port currently provides coal facilities. The other Mozambique ports shown on the map are in various stages of development.
2012 Carbon Tracker analysis
The 2012 analysis from the Carbon Tracker Initiative, "Unburnable carbon: Budgeting carbon in South Africa," found that the current coal reserves earmarked for the South African market, equivalent to 19.2 GtCO2e, exceeds the South African Government’s ‘required by science’ carbon budget (in line with 2°C global warming) of 16.4 GtCO2e for all sectors from 2010 to 2050.
2010: Studies suggest South Africa reaching peak coal
Recent research from three scientific journals suggest that usable coal reserves in South Africa are much smaller than previously thought, and that annual production could reach a peak and begin to decline within a decade -- or might have peaked already. Jeremy Wakeford, chair of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil (Aspo) in South Africa, discussed the studies in the organisation's latest newsletter, and how they challenge the "commonly believed [idea] that South Africa has abundant coal reserves which will last 200 years or more... given the country's overwhelming dependence on coal, this issue has huge ramifications for our future development path."
"Peak" refers to the theory that production in commodities such as oil grows until a peak is reached, whereafter production declines. In the case of South African coal, recent studies are suggesting production has already reached its peak, or soon will. Coal provides 70% of the country's energy supply, supports 90% of electricity generation, is used to make a quarter of the country's liquid synfuels using the Sasol process, and is a big earner of foreign exchange through exports to foreign users. Geologist Chris Hartnady, in a paper to be published in the SA Journal of Science, has forecast peak production in 2020 at about 285-million tonnes a year.
Air pollution standards
The South Africa-based environmental group Groundwork reported that in a single four-month period in 2010, the country exceeded its ambient air pollution standards 570 times—mostly due to the emissions from plants in South Africa's Mpumalanga province. The region is home to the Sasol plant in Secunda, which is both the largest coal-to-liquids plant and the largest point source of greenhouse gas emissions in the world.
Homes, drinking water from reclaimed coal waste
Anglo American, a mining company using the eMalahleni water reclamation plant in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa, is turning coal waste (gypsum) into houses. The plant turns up to 200 tons of gypsum a day into bricks, which is says could provide up to 7,000 houses a year. As of June 2011, 66 three-bedroom houses have been built, and 300 more will be built by December.
The water reclamation plant also purifies water from five mines, and turns it into drinking water. The water reclamation plant is a public-private partnership by Anglo Thermal Coal, BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa (BECSA) and the Emalahleni Local Municipality.
June 2011: Greenpeace dumps coal at Eskom
On June 27, 2011, Greenpeace protesters blocked one of the entrances of the Eskom headquarters with five tons of coal, to publicly demand that Eskom stop the construction of the Kusile Power Station and shift to renewables. The activists held banners calling on Eskom to clean up its act and stop coal.
Kusile coal-fired power plant will be one of the biggest coal-fired power stations in the world, with 4,800 MW of power production, using 17 million tons of coal per year. According to Greenpeace, the action highlighted the true cost of Eskom’s addiction to coal: environmental destruction at every step, the pollution of scarce water supplies, and the destruction of people’s health and wellbeing.
Greenpeace Africa’s climate and energy campaigner Melita Steele said: “To date, Eskom’s investments in renewable energy are limited to tiny projects of 100MW of wind and 100MW of solar. This illustrates Eskom’s lack of commitment to a sustainable future for South Africa.”
Greenpeace Africa’s 2011 report, "The Advanced Energy (R)evolution", says that South Africa - as the largest CO2 emitter on the continent, and the 12th largest in the world - has a moral responsibility to address climate change, and that switching to 50% renewables by 2030 would create 150,000 direct jobs.
According to Steele, “Greenpeace has tried repeatedly to engage with Eskom about its addiction to coal and nuclear energy. Eskom has however not shown any intention of changing its tune. Today Greenpeace publicly calls on Eskom to clean up its act."
November 2011: Greenpeace protests South African coal plant, 9 arrested
Authorities arrested nine people at the Kusile power station near Witbank in South Africa on November 7, 2011. Greenpeace activists chained themselves to a gate while others climbed a crane to protest dependence on coal just weeks before the country hosts a global conference on climate change. The plant is owned by the state-owned power company Eskom, the country's number one greenhouse gas emitter.
Citizens Groups Campaigning on Coal
- 350.org South Africa
- Alternative Information Development Centre
- Anti Privatization Forum
- Austerville Clinic Committee
- Benchmarks Foundation
- Bluff Ridge Conservancy
- Boitshoko Home Based Care
- Ceasefire Campaign
- Centre for Civil Society Environmental Justice Project
- Citizens United for Renewable Energy and Sustainability
- Clairwood Ratepayers Association
- Climate Justice Now
- Displaced Rates Payers Association
- DUCT Howick
- Durban Airport Farmers Association
- Earthlife Africa
- Eastern Cape Environmental Network
- Ecumenical Service for Socio-Economic Transformation
- Ecumenical Women’s Prayer in Action
- Environmental Monitoring Group
- Esigodini Environmental Group
- Federation for a Sustainable Environment
- General Industries Workers Union of SA
- Greater Edendale Environmental Network
- Inner City Resource Centre
- Institute for Zero Waste in Africa
- Isipingo Environmental Committee
- Isipingo Ratepayers AssociationJoint Action Committee of Isipingo
- Kathorus Concerned Residents
- KwaZulu-Natal Subsistence Forum
- Merebank Clinic Committee
- Merebank Residents Association
- Noordhoek Environmental Action Group
- Off the Ground
- Pelindaba Working Group
- Phulhumani CO OP
- Pietermaritzburg Association for Christian Social Awareness
- Renewable Energy Centre
- Silverglen Civic Association
- Siyathuthuka Group
- Socialist Group
- South African Chemical Workers Union (Gauteng)
- South African Council of Churches (Gauteng)
- South African Council of Churches
- Southern African Faith Communities' Environment Institute
- South Durban Community Environmental Alliance
- Southern Cape Land Committee
- Soweto Concerned Residents
- Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee
- Springs Eco Friends
- Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Project
- Treasure Beach Environmental Forum
- Trust for Community Outreach and Education
- Tsogang Youth Group
- Umphilo waManzi
- Vaal Environmental Justice Alliance
- Vezani Disable Support Group
- Well Worn Theatre
- Wentworth Development Forum
- Wildlife and Environmental Society of South Africa (Gauteng)
- Workers World Media Production
- WWF SA
- Youth Agriculture Ambassadors
Articles and Resources
- World Coal Institute, "Coal Facts 2007", World Coal Institute website, accessed June 2008.
- Energy Information Administration, South Africa: Coal", Energy Information Administration website, accessed June 2008.
- Eskom, "Coal in South Africa Revision 5", January 2008.
- Question No.: 522", Department of Public Enterprises website, March 5, 2010.
- "Carbon dioxide emissions" South Africa: State of the Environment, site last updated Aug. 26, 2011.
- "Build Programme", Eskom website, November 2007.
- Phumza Macanda, "S.Africa retail sales dip, rate rise still on cards", Reuters, June 18, 2008.
- Eskom, "Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme", March 2008.
- World Bank, "World Bank Financing for Continued Growth, Enhanced Poverty Reduction in Botswana Board of Directors approves US$136.4 million for critical electricity supply project", Media Release, October 29, 2009.
- Eskom, Business and sustainability performance review", Eskom Annual Report 2008.
- "Bankrolling Climate Change: A Look into the Portfolios of the World’s Largest Banks" Earthlife Africa Johannesburg and BankTrack, 2011 Report.
- [action.sierraclub.org/site/DocServer/Kusile_Letter_to_US_Exim_Bank-920.pdf?docID=6082 "Kusile Letter to US Ex-Im Bank"] Sierra Club, Sep. 20, 2010.
- Harold Winkler, "South Africa To Introduce Rising Price On Carbon Pollution From Major Sources In 2013," NRDC Switchboard, March 15, 2012.
- Eskom, "Generations Plant Mix Revision 8", May 2008.
- South African government, "National Response to South Africa's Electricity Shortage", January 2008
- Aviva Corporation, "Power EOI Submitted to Eskom", Media Release, June 19, 2008.
- "Coal Fired Plants Financed by International Public Investment Institutions since 1994", Appendix A in Foreclosing the Future: Coal, Climate and International Public Finance: Investment in coal-fired power plants hinders the fight against global warming, Environmental Defense Fund, April 2009.
- "Eskom told to charge companies fair rates ", Business Report, February 23, 2010.
- "Eskom's R29 billion World Bank loan runs into opposition", Business Report, February 23, 2010.
- "World Bank split over controversial 'clean coal' investment" Cath Everett March 8, 2010.
- "U.S. abstains on vote to proliferate coal in South Africa" Climate Progress, April 8, 2010.
- "South Africa wins $3.75 billion coal loan" Climate Wire, April 9, 2010.
- "Eskom key reason South Africa is big polluter" Donna Bryson, Associated Press, November 24, 2011.
- "South African Coal Plant Wins U.S. Backing Over Environmentalist Protests" Mark Drajem, Bloomberg, April 14, 2011.
- "Ex-Im Bank Gives Preliminary Approval For $800M Loan To South Africa Power Plant" Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2011.
- Sasol, Sasol 200 Annual Review", page 20.
- Thomas R. Yager, "The Mineral Industry of South Africa", 2005 Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey, August 2007.(Pdf)
- "Ingwe announces name change to BHP Billiton Energy Coal SA", Mining Weekly.com, January 29, 2007.
- BHP Billiton, "BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa", BHP Billiton website, accessed June 2010.
- "S.Africa's Sasol launches new $423 mln coal shaft" Reuters, May 22, 2012.
- "Continental breaks ground on third S Africa coal mine" Mariaan Webb, Mining Weekly, September 8, 2011.
- "Corporate Overview" Forbes Coal, accessed July 2011.
- "Chinese seek coal mines in SA" Mining Review, Nov. 18, 2010.
- Loni Prinsloo, "Eskom says 15 new Mpumalanga coal mines needed by 2015" Mining Weekly, July 15, 2011.
- "Introduction to the South African Coal Industry" Forbes Coal, accessed July 2011.
- Agnieszka Flak, "S.Africa's Transnet says moving RBCT coal at record" ShareNet, Oct. 26, 2011.
- Dinakar Sethuraman and Archana Chaudhary, "Coal From South Africa Seen Rebounding on Sales to India: Energy Markets" Bloomberg, Sep. 22, 2010.
- [http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-01-10/india-plans-to-boost-south-african-imports-of-gold-coal-gems-and-metals.html "India Plans to Boost South African Imports of Gold, Coal, Gems and Metals"> Carli Lourens, January 10, 2011.
- "China took 2.5 mln T of S.African coal in Oct" Reuters Africa, Nov. 8, 2011.
- "Mozambique gears up to become coking coal hub" Agnieszka Flak & William Mapote, Reuters, November 21, 2011.
- Karen Orenstein, "A day’s journey through South African coal country" FOE Blog, Jan. 13, 2012.
- Kevin Davie, "SA is nearing peak coal, say scientists" Mail & Guardian Online, Sep. 25, 2010.
- Kate Sheppard, "Your Tax Dollars at Work: A Giant Coal Plant in South Africa" Mother Jones, Dec. 9, 2011.
- Gina-Marie Cheeseman, "Coal Mining Waste Used to Build Houses in South Africa" Triple Pundit, June 2, 2011.
- "Greenpeace demands Eskom cleans up its act" My Broadband, June 27, 2011.
- "Greenpeace protests SAfrica coal plant; 9 arrests" Associated Press, Donna Bryson, November 7, 2011.
Proposed and existing coal terminals in Southern Africa
Related SourceWatch articles
South Africa specific articles
- Department of Minerals and Energy (South Africa)
- Nuclear power in South Africa
- Richards Bay Coal Terminal
- South African Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage
- Carbon Capture and Storage in South Africa
- Global use and production of coal
- Australia and coal
- Britain and coal
- China and coal
- Colombia and coal
- Germany and coal
- Indonesia and coal
- Japan and coal
- New Zealand and coal
- United States and coal
- Louise Tait and Harald Winkler, "Estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with achieving universal access to electricity in South Africa," Energy Research Centre, January 2012.
- "Groundwork - Stories from the ground: Struggles in Africa!" Friends of the Earth South Africa Website
- Alison Hughes, Mary Haw, Harald Winkler, Andrew Marquard, Bruno Merven (Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town), Energy Emissions: A modelling input into the Long Term Mitigation Scenarios process, Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism, South Africa, October 2007. (This report estimates current and future emissions in South Africa from the power generation sector).
- "Introduction to the South African Coal Industry" Forbes Coal, accessed July 2011.
- International Energy Agency, "Coal in South Africa in 2005", International Energy Agency website, accessed June 2008.
- U.S. Geological Survey, South Africa 1994-2005
- South African government, "National Response to South Africa's Electricity Shortage", January 2008.
- Khadija Sharife, "South Africa: Country's Dirty Secret - Eskom and the Medupi Power Plant", AllAfrica.com, May 14, 2010
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