Energy Profile-Brazil

From Global Energy Monitor
(Redirected from Country Profile: Brazil)
Este artigo faz parte do Portal Energético da América Latina de Global Energy Monitor.

Economy & demographics

Projected GDP growth

Projected population growth

Government energy plans

Fuel mix targets (fossil fuels vs renewables)

Greenhouse gas emissions targets

Brazil is the world's sixth largest emitter of greenhouse gases. As of December 2020, the country's NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution) target for 2030 calls for a 43% reduction in GHG emissions below 2005 levels; the target has remained unchanged since 2015.[1]

Government energy agencies

National energy agencies

MME (Ministerio de Minas e Energia) is the Brazilian government ministry in charge of energy policy.

EPE (Empresa de Pesquisa Energética) is Brazil's energy research agency, providing energy policy and planning support to the MME in the oil, natural gas, biofuels and electricity sectors. EPE publishes regular reports including the Plano Decenal de Expansão de Energia, which offers a 10-year perspective on Brazil's energy expansion plans.[2]

Permitting agencies

IBAMA is Brazil's environmental regulatory agency, responsible for granting licenses for new power generation projects.

Regulatory agencies

ANP (Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis) is the government regulator for Brazil's oil, natural gas, and biofuels sector.

ANEEL is Brazil's national regulatory authority for electricity, managing the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity nationwide. ANEEL, in conjunction with MME, oversees Brazil's annual energy auctions, in which companies bid to supply generation capacity to the national grid.

Electric utilities

State-owned Eletrobras is Brazil's largest electric utility company.

National oil company

Petrobras, Brazil's state-run petroleum company, is involved in oil and gas exploration, production, and distribution. The company operates refineries, power plants, and LNG terminals throughout the country.

Leading energy companies

Energy sector employment data

Electricity usage

Brazil's electricity sector is one of the world's largest, ranking eighth internationally[3] and third in the Western Hemisphere behind the United States and Canada.[4]

Installed capacity

As of 2019, hydro accounted for the majority of Brazil's installed electricity generation capacity (109.2 GW, or 63.36%), followed by non-renewable thermal sources (26.2 GW, 15.23%), wind (15.4 GW, 8.93%), renewable thermal sources (15.0 GW, 8.73%), solar (4.5 GW, 2.59%), and nuclear (2.0 GW, 1.16%).[5]

Brazil's Electricity Generation by Source: 2019[6]

Production

Hydro power has long been the dominant energy source for electrical generation in Brazil, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the country's production (63.52%) in 2019. Other sources of electricity include natural gas (9.65%), wind (8.94), biofuels (8.70), coal (3.85%), nuclear (2.58%), oil (1.63%), and solar PV (1.06%), with wind and solar growing most rapidly over the past decade.[7]

Demand

Consumption

Coal in Brazil

Domestic Production

Consumption

Imports & source countries

Proposed new sources

Proposed new projects

Transport

Coal development in Brazil is concentrated in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, which is home to all of Brazil's significant coal mines and the majority of its operating and proposed coal-fired power plants. Other states with operating coal plants include Santa Catarina, Paraná, Maranhão, and Ceará. Ceará is home to Brazil's largest coal plant, Porto do Pecém, which is supplied with imported coal from Colombia.

Oil & Natural Gas in Brazil

Domestic Production

Consumption

Imports & source countries

Proposed new sources

Proposed new projects

Transport

In 2019, Brazil ranked eighth worldwide in crude oil production, ninth in oil products production, 19th in coal production, and 22nd in natural gas production.[3] Recent development has focused on the the so-called "pre-salt layer" off Brazil's southeastern coast, which accounts for more than half of the country's oil and natural gas reserves.[8]

Brazil derives most of its natural gas supply from domestic production, supplemented by a smaller volume of international LNG shipments from Asia and imports from Bolivia via the Cuiabá pipeline and the Gasbol gas pipeline. Imports via pipeline have decreased substantially following the expiration of Brazil's 20-year contract to purchase gas from Bolivia at the end of 2019, and demand for imported gas has waned as Brazil develops its own substantial gas fields in the pre-salt layer.[9][10][11]

Iron & Steel in Brazil

Brazil is Latin America's leading iron and steel producer, with 46,200 ttpa of steelmaking capacity and 37,422 ttpa of ironmaking capacity. Nearly three-quarters of Brazil's steel is produced using the older, more energy-intensive blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace technology.[12]

Environmental & social impacts of energy in Brazil

References

  1. "STATEMENT: Brazil Sets Weak 2030 Emission Reduction Target". World Resources Institute. December 10, 2020.
  2. "Plano Decenal de Expansão de Energia". EPE (Empresa de Pesquisa Energética). Retrieved 2021-04-17.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "World Energy Statistics | Enerdata". yearbook.enerdata.net. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  4. "International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  5. "Panorama energético de América Latina y el Caribe 2020 (p 98)". OLADE. November 2020.
  6. "Anuário Estatístico de Energia Elétrica 2020 (p 63)" (PDF). EPE (Empresa de Pesquisa Energética). 2020.
  7. "IEA Policies and Measures Database © OECD/IEA". IEA. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  8. "Pre-salt | Upstream Guide | Oil and Gas | Deloitte Brazil". Deloitte. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  9. "Centrica sends cargo to launch Brazil's first private LNG terminal". Reuters. February 25, 2020.
  10. "El gas boliviano, entre la falta de extracción y la falta de mercados". Sputnik Mundo. January 16, 2021.
  11. "A Complicated Major Gas Pipeline System on the Drawing Boards in South America". Pipeline Technology Journal. September 18, 2020.
  12. "Steel Dashboard". Global Energy Monitor. Retrieved 2021-04-12.